Annual Editions: World History, Volume I, 8/e, by Mitchell, Joseph R.
Note: Supplemental materials are not guaranteed with Rental or Used book purchases.
- ISBN: 9780073053776 | 0073053775
- Cover: Paperback
- Copyright: 8/9/2004
This informative anthology provides convenient, inexpensive access to a wide range of current, carefully selected articles from some of the most respected magazines, newspapers, and journals published today. Within the pages of this volume are interesting well-illustrated articles by historians, educators, researchers, and writers, providing an effective and useful perspective on world history from prehistory to 1500. The title is supported by our student website, Dushkin Online. (http://www.dushkin.com/online)
UNIT 1. Natural History and the Spread of Humankind
1. Stand and Deliver: Why Did Early Hominids Begin to Walk on Two Feet?, Ian Tattersall, Natural History, November 2003
What got humankind started on its unique evolutionary trajectory? The ability to walk upright on two feet—bipedalism is what it’s called—allowed hominids to outshine their prehistoric cousins. As their environment changed, they adapted. Once they had the ability to hunt and tasted red meat, the competition was over. Bipedalism was here to stay! So was meat!
2. The Scavenging of “Peking Man”, Noel T. Boaz and Russell L. Ciochon, Natural History, March 2001
The most important archaeological site in China is Dragon Bone Hill, 30 miles southwest of Beijing. Excavations from 1921 to 1982 uncovered the remains of 45 individuals with their tools and debris dating from 300,000 to 600,000 years ago. These remains of Peking Man, once thought to reveal the use of fire and cannibalism, may show that early man was eaten by hyenas.
3. Mapping the Past, Adam Goodheart, Civilization, March/April 1996
Genetic historians are using DNA analysis to track the migration of human beings. American Indians can be traced to a region of Mongolia and Polynesians have been tracked to southeast Asia. DNA markers may eventually provide a “map” of the entire human species.
4. First Americans, Karen Wright, Discover, February 1999
Long thought that the first humans in the New World crossed the Bering Strait at the end of the Ice Age, recent archaeological evidence seems to indicate that none of this may be true. Scientists continued to search for clues pertaining to who, how, and when the earliest Americans arrived.
5. Japanese Roots, Jared Diamond, Discover, June 1998
The origins of the Japanese people offer a mystery. Genetically they are similar to other Asians, especially Koreans, but their language is distinctly different. Interpretations of Japanese origins are complicated by myth and long-standing enmities.
UNIT 2. The Beginnings of Culture, Agriculture, and Cities
6. Prehistory of Warfare, Steven A. LeBlanc, Archaeology, May/June 2003
According to Steven LeBlanc, humans have been at each others’ throats since the prehistoric era. This predilection for organized violence has been largely ignored by previous archaeologists, even though LeBlanc finds evidence in every corner of the world. Wars in prehistoric times—should we be surprised?
7. Writing Gets a Rewrite, Andrew Lawler, Science, June 29, 2001
The commonly-held belief that writing began in Mesopotamia five thousand years ago is being challenged by researchers today. Evidence gathered in recent years indicates that it may have developed simultaneously in Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus River valley. But the findings, while promising, are not conclusive enough to make a case for that theory. Perhaps future discoveries will shed new light on this important question.
8. Time and the River: Life in Ancient Egypt Was Geared to the Annual Nile Flood, John Baines, Unesco Courier, September 1988
Most early civilizations developed around rivers, their histories inextricably tied to a river’s bounty—none more so than Egypt. The Nile River not only provided Egypt with economic sustenance and political unity, but also shaped Egypt’s mythology and worldview.
9. Poets and Psalmists: Goddesses and Theologians, Samuel Noah Kramer, from The Legacy of Sumer: Invited Lectures on the Middle East at the Univ. of Texas, Undena Publications, 1976
Was Sumerian society really male-dominated? Were women second-class citizens in civic, economic, legal, educational, and theological matters? Not according to recent archeological discoveries. At least, prior to 2000 B.C.E., we have strong evidence that women of the ruling class enjoyed social and economic equality with men. And, in the heavenly realm, the Goddess Inanna retained her status as “Queen of Heaven.” Enheduanna, daughter of Sargon the Great, presided over the temple in the city of Ur, as high priestess and resident liturgical poet.
10. The Cradle of Cash, Heather Pringle, Discover, October 1998
With the growth of cities and markets there arose a need for a standard way to express the value of varied items. Simple barter became impossible. Silver rings, gold, and ingots provided this necessary medium of exchange in Mesopotamia as early as 2500 B.C.E.
UNIT 3. The Early Civilizations to 500 B.C.E.
11. Indus Valley, Inc., Shanti Menon, Discover, December 1998
Starting around 3300 B.C.E., the Indus Valley civilization built some of the earliest planned cities at Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro, and they flourished for 700 years. Streets were laid out in a grid, and houses were constructed with standard-sized bricks. Practical and business-like, the remains of the civilization reflect little warfare or elaborate burials.
12. Five Ways to Conquer a City, Erika Bleibtreu, Biblical Archaeology Review, May/June 1990
Archaeological excavations and drawings of Assyrian palaces built from 883–627 B.C.E. reveal themes of warfare and conquest. Ladders, fire, siege, battering, and burrowing were all methods of attack against a walled city.
13. Empires in the Dust, Karen Wright, Discover, March 1998
4000 years ago, some Bronze Age cultures—Minoan, Egyptian, Indian, and Accadian—disintegrated. Was political strife and social unrest responsible? Or did a change in climate, bring about severe droughts? The jury is still out.
14. Out of Africa: The Superb Artwork of Ancient Nubia, David Roberts, Smithsonian, June 1993
Due to prejudice, undeciphered writing, lack of archaeological exploration, inhospitable climate, and information that came mainly from enemies, the Nubian civilization is largely unknown except through recent displays of art. It was once thought to be an offshoot of Egyptian culture, but this black civilization flourished at the same time as Egypt’s and once conquered all of Egypt around 730 B.C.E.
15. Scythian Gold, Doug Stewart, Smithsonian, March 2000
The Scythians were a nation of warring nomads who dominated the European Steppe from the seventh to the third century B.C.E. They did not write or build cities, but they brought from the Greeks a lightweight gold artwork designed to be worn by a man on horseback. This article investigates a great warrior culture and its remarkable art.
UNIT 4. The Later Civilizations to 500 C.E.
16. In Classical Athens, a Market Trading in the Currency of Ideas, John Fleischman, Smithsonian, July 1993
The agora was the heart of urban life for Greek city-states. In this public plaza, people met to trade, gossip, argue, and vote. An open space surrounded by civic buildings and religious sites, the agora of Athens was the place where Socrates taught and died.
17. Cleopatra: What Kind of a Woman Was She, Anyway?, Barbara Holland, Smithsonian, February 1997
Cleopatra, the queen of Egypt in the first century B.C.E., has been one of the most fascinating women of history. Characterized in various ways by Afrocentrists, Hollywood movies, George Bernard Shaw, William Shakespeare, and Plutarch, she never had the chance to tell her own story.
18. Secrets of a Desert Metropolis, Evan Hadingham, Scientific American Discovering Archaeology, September/October 2000
The Arabian Desert traders known as Nabataeans built at Petra in southern Jordan an oasis city of 30,000 that had graceful temples, shops, and an Olympic-sized pool supplied by an aqueduct. Long thought to have withered after the Romans changed the trade routes, or to have been deserted after devastating earthquakes, the city is now thought to have prospered until the Islamic conquest of the 7th century A.D.
19. It Happened Only Once in History, Max I. Dimont, Jews, God, and History, 1994
Historically, Jews have represented less than one percent of the world’s population. Yet, they have managed to make significant contributions to every aspect of the civilizations in which they lived, in spite of suffering from discrimination and persecution. Max Dimont recounts how the Jews responded to the challenges hurled at them thoughout history, and how they not only survived, but prospered.
UNIT 5. The Great Religions
20. Ancient Jewel, T. R. (Joe) Sundaram, The World & I, October 1996
Indian civilization is more than 6,000 years old. Its culture produced Hinduism and Buddhism and influenced philosophical thinking. Ideas about cycles of life and acceptance of diversity are only a part of the Indian contribution to the world.
21. What Is the Koran?, Toby Lester, The Atlantic Monthly, January 1999
Orthodox Muslims believe that the Koran has reached us today as the perfect and unchanged word of God. Comparisons with older versions of the Koran that indicate changes and attempts to place the Koran in a historical context thus far have raised disturbing questions. Yet, this is necessary for an understanding of the Islamic civilization and all of its permutations.
22. The Dome of the Rock: Jerusalem’s Epicenter, Walid Khalidi, Aramco World, September/October 1996
Jerusalem is as sacred to Muslims as it is to Jews and Christians. The Dome of the Rock, an octagonal sanctuary covering the rock from which Muhammad is believed to have ascended to heaven, dominates the skyline of the old city. It is a point where humanity is joined to God.
23. 2000 Years of Jesus, Kenneth L. Woodward, Newsweek, March 29, 1999
After two millennia, about one-third of the world’s population claim to be Christian, and the world measures time by the birthday of Jesus. His teachings have influenced art, culture, politics, and ethics in the West. The religion gave women greater protection and the concept of personal salvation gave worth to the individual.
24. Women in Ancient Christianity: The New Discoveries, Karen L. King, Frontline, April 6, 1998
What role did women play in the early Christian church? Was it a subordinate one or one that reflected gender equality. Karen L. King cites ancient sources that reveal women actively participating in early Christianity—as disciples, prophets, preachers, and teachers. The leadership roles of these early Christian women were suppressed for centuries until the rediscovery of original source texts has allowed us to re-enter the first centuries of Christianity.
25. Confucius, Jonathan D. Spence, The Wilson Quarterly, Autumn 1993
Despite attacks upon Confucian ideas in this twentieth century, there has been a resurgence of interest in this fifth century B.C.E. teacher during the past two decades. Confucius did not speak about life after death, but his compelling humanity and belief in the importance of culture and learning make him worthy of contemporary study.
26. The Legacy of Abraham, David Van Biema, Time, September 30, 2002
Abraham, the Biblical and Quranic patriarch, is acknowleged as a spiritual father in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. While this offers possible point of convergence and even the potential for unity, the reality is that Abraham also divides Jews, Christians, and Muslims. Each faith has used him to buttress their own claims to truth, while, at the same time, disputing the truth claims of the other two religions. Is there still room for interfaith dialogue with Abraham as its focal point?
UNIT 6. The World of the Middle Ages, 500–1500
27. The Survival of the Eastern Roman Empire, Stephen Williams and Gerard Friell, History Today, November 1998
In the 5th century C.E., the Roman Empire had become divided into two parts, the western one centered in Rome, the eastern one in Constantinople. Both were subjected to barbarian attacks; the western empire succumbed to those attacks, the eastern empire lasted for another thousand years. This article tells why.
28. The New Maya, T. Patrick Culbert, Archaeology, September/October 1998
Having dispelled the myth of a model Maya society led by gentle priest-kings, scholars are piecing together a fresh picture of the rise and fall of a complex civilization. As their research continues, more light will be shed upon this Mesoamerican civilization that, in its glory days, rivalled that of ancient Egypt.
29. Chaco Death Squads, Stephen H. Lekson, Archaeology, May/June 1999
Tourists visiting Chaco Canyon, Mesa Verde, and other prehistory Pueblo sites have traditionally been told about peaceful, farming, democratic ancient Indians. Recent studies argue, however, that warfare and, perhaps, cannibalism were common features in Southwestern life.
30. The Ideal of Unity, Russell Chamberlin, History Today, November 2003
With Europe increasingly united and centrally controlled, one wonders if there has ever been a precedent for such an ambitious endeavor as the European Union. In the Middle Ages, there was one such attempt as the Holy Roman Emperors attempted to unify the continent. They ultimately failed; this story tells why.
31. The Arab Roots of European Medicine, David W. Tschanz, Aramco World, May/June 1997
Following the end of the Roman Empire and the rise of Islam, Arab physicians benefited from translations of Greek medical works. The Arabs established the first hospitals and pharmacies and, beginning in the ninth century, they contributed their own ideas. In the tenth century translations from Arabic to Latin began to educate European physicians.
32. The Age of the Vikings, Arne Emil Christensen, Scientific American Discovering Archaeology, September/October 2000
The Norsemen were more than feared warriors. They were also colonizers, city-builders, lawgivers, architects, explorers, and merchants. They terrorized England and France for 250 years. Eventually, they settled with their families in England, Normandy, Scotland, Russia, Greenland, and Newfoundland.
33. The Fall of Constantinople, Judith Herrin, History Today, June 2003
In what many regard as one of history’s turning points, the Ottoman Turks captured the Byzantine Empire’s capital city of Constantinople in 1453. The background to this epic struggle and the valiant defense of the city in the face of insurmountable odds are recounted here.
34. Clocks: Revolution in Time, David Landes, History Today, January 1984
The mechanical clock was the key machine of the industrial revolution. This technology from the Middle Ages differentiated Europe from the rest of the world.
UNIT 7. 1500: The Era of Global Expansion
35. 1492: The Prequel, Nicholas D. Kristof, The New York Times Magazine, June 6, 1999
Between 1405 and 1433 Zheng He of China led sailing expeditions to the west that reached the east coast of Africa. He could have sailed around Africa to Europe, but there was little reason to reach that “backward region of the world.” Economic and intellectual complacency within China stopped the explorations. This set a course for the later domination by the West.
36. The Other 1492: Jews and Muslims in Columbus’s Spain, Fouad Ajami, The New Republic, April 6, 1992
Christopher Columbus’s three ships left Spain for their world-changing voyage to the Americas. The day before, the last ships carrying expelled Jews also left Spain under somewhat different conditions. An account of the latter exodus chronicles Spanish antisemitism, which includes the 1481 Inquisition and the 1492 Edict of Expulsion.
37. The Far West’s Challenge to the World, 1500–1700 A.D., William H. McNeill, from The Rise of the West: A History of the Human Community, 1991
During the era of global expansion, the Western nations were able to exert their will over those with whom they had contact. Why were they able to do this? Wiliam H. McNeill offers some reasons to account for the West’s growing power to dominate the rest of the world.
38. Columbus and the Labyrinth of History, John Noble Wilford, The Wilson Quarterly, Autumn 1991
The assessment of Christopher Columbus and his accomplishments has changed with time and politics. The quincentenary of his 1492 voyage brought controversy, with Columbus seen as a symbol of oppression, but there can be little denial about the historical impact of the voyage.
39. How Many People Were Here Before Columbus?, Lewis Lord, U.S. News & World Report, August 18 – 25, 1997
With the exception of a city or two in Europe, no one was counting population at the time of Columbus, so there are only guesses about the numbers of Indians in North America. The high estimate is 112.5 million; the low estimate is 8.4 million. The only consensus is that the death rate in the 150 years after Columbus was catastrophic.
40. A Taste of Adventure, The Economist, December 19, 1998
When Vasco da Gama’s men at last reached Calicut in India in 1498, they shouted as they came ashore, “For Christ and spices!” With trails leading to India and the Spice Islands of Indonesia, the global spice trade reaches back in time at least to 2600 B.C.E., when Egyptians fed spices to the builders of the pyramids. The allure of spices continues to the present time.
41. After Dire Straits, an Agonizing Haul Across the Pacific, Simon Winchester, Smithsonian, April 1991
Following the wake of Christopher Columbus, other European explorers set forth. One of Magellan’s ill-starred ships succeeded in the first circumnavigation of Earth.