- ISBN: 9780132755962 | 0132755963
- Cover: Paperback
- Copyright: 6/3/2016
Children's Speech distills scientific evidence from around the world on sound disorders across the areas of speech acquisition, assessment, analysis, diagnosis, and intervention, and presents it with practical knowledge to prepare speech-language pathologists (SLPs) to work with children and their families. The book is guided by two contemporary frameworks that direct the successful management of speech sound disorders in children: evidence-based practice (EBP) and the International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health—Children and Youth (ICF-CY). The foundation knowledge covers important topics including defining the population, types of speech sound disorders, anatomical structures, articulation and transcription of speech sounds, and theoretical foundations of speech and speech acquisition. Practical evidence-based knowledge is covered in chapters that mirror the stages of contact when working with children with speech sound disorders including assessment, analysis, goal setting, intervention principles and plans, intervention procedures, phonological interventions, motor speech interventions, and the conduct of EBP. The last chapter provides comprehensive clinical information for five clinical cases, including transcribed speech samples, case history information, assessment results and other real-life material. Throughout, readers are directed to complete clinical application tasks, drawing on the case-based information in this final chapter.
Sharynne McLeod, Ph.D. is a speech-language pathologist and professor of speech and language acquisition from Charles Sturt University, Australia. She is an elected Fellow of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association and Life Member of Speech Pathology Australia. She is an elected board member of the International Association of Logopedics and Phoniatrics, Vice President of the International Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics Association, a past editor of the International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology and co-chair of the International Expert Panel on Multilingual Children’s Speech. Dr. McLeod has been an invited speaker at the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association conventions as well as at conferences and universities in Australia, Hong Kong, Iceland, Italy, Ireland, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, Turkey, UK, US, and Vietnam.
Dr. McLeod's research focuses on monolingual and multilingual children's speech. She applies the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF-CY, World Health Organization, 2007) to children with speech sound disorders and is one of two speech-language pathologists who contributed to the development of the ICF-CY (WHO, 2007). Her research foregrounds the right of everyone (particularly children) to participate fully in society. Dr. McLeod also researches the prevalence and impact of childhood speech sound disorders and links this to policy and service delivery issues.
Elise Baker, PhD is a speech-language pathologist and academic from The University of Sydney, Australia. Dr. Baker has been an invited speaker at American Speech-Language-Hearing Association conventions has served as the National Tour Speaker for Speech Pathology Australia and is a member of the International Expert Panel on Multilingual Children’s Speech. Dr. Baker is an award-winning teacher. She has taught tertiary students in the area of speech sound disorders in children for over 20 years. She is passionate about speech-language pathologists and researchers working together to foster knowledge creation, dissemination and implementation. Dr. Baker nurtures her passion through service on the steering committee of a large evidence-based practice network of practicing speech-language pathologists. Dr. Baker’s research focuses on intervention for speech sound disorders in children, innovative service delivery solutions for children with speech sound disorders, speech-language pathologists' methods of practice with children who have speech sound disorders, and the conduct of evidence-based practice.
Detailed Table of Contents
Preface xiii About the Authors xvii Acknowledgments xix Chapter 1 Children with Speech Sound Disorders 1 Overview 2 Defining SSD 4 Prevalence and Impact 9 Prevalence of Communication Disorders 10 Natural History and Long-Term Manifestation of SSD 14 Impact and Outcomes of Childhood SSD 17 Risk and Protective Factors for SSD 26 Evidence-Based Practice 33 Chapter summary 36 / Suggested reading 36 / Application of knowledge from Chapter 1 36 Chapter 2 Classification, Causes, and Co-occurrence 37 Overview 38 Types of SSD in Children 38 Classification Systems of Children with SSD 46 SSD of Known and Unknown Origins 51 Co-occurrence of SSD with Other Types of Communication Impairment 56 Chapter summary 59 / Suggested reading 59 / Application of knowledge from Chapter 2 59 Chapter 3 Articulatory Foundations of Speech 60 Overview 61 Anatomical Structures for Speech Production and Perception 61 Structures involved in speech production 61 Structures Involved in Speech Detection 78 Additional Anatomical Structures That Support Perception and Production of Speech 81 Chapter summary 83 / Suggested reading 83 / Application of knowledge from Chapter 3 83 Chapter 4 Transcription of Speech 84 Overview 85 Transcription of Speech 85 Extensions to the IPA 105 Phonotactics 106 Understanding English Consonants Using Knowledge of Anatomy and Auditory Transcription 108 Chapter summary 125 / Suggested reading 125 / Application of knowledge from Chapter 4 125 Appendix 4-1. Transcription decision-making tree 126 Appendix 4-2. Inventory of consonants for 25 languages and dialects 127 Appendix 4-3. Extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet 132 Appendix 4-4. Voice quality symbols 133 Chapter 5 Theoretical Foundations of Children’s Speech 134 Overview 135 Phonology–What Is It? 135 Phonological Theories 148 Classic Theories of Phonology 148 Contemporary Theories of Phonology 159 Speech Perception 165 Speech Production 168 Chapter summary 173 / Suggested reading 173 / Application of knowledge from Chapter 5 174 Chapter 6 Children’s Speech Acquisition 175 Overview 176 Part 1: Important Issues When Considering Children’s Speech Acquisition 177 Typical Versus Acceptable Speech Acquisition 178 Theories of Child Development that have Influenced Our Understanding of Speech Acquisition 185 Methodological Issues in Studying Speech Acquisition 187 Part 2: Typical Speech Acquisition for English-Speaking children 191 Speech Acquisition for English-Speaking Infants and Toddlers from Birth to 2 Years 191 Speech Acquisition for English-Speaking Preschoolers from 3 to 5 Years 200 Speech Acquisition for English-Speaking School-Aged Children from 6 years 208 Part 3: Typical Speech Acquisition for All Children 212 Chapter summary 216 / Recommended reading 216 / Application of knowledge from Chapter 6 216 Appendix 6-1. Summary of studies of English-speaking children’s speech acquisition 217 Chapter 7 Assessment Preparation, Purpose, and Types 220 Overview 221 Typical assessments for children with suspected SSD 221 Preparation 221 Referral and Background Information 228 Purposes of Assessment 233 Types of Assessments 236 Chapter summary 242 / Suggested reading 243 / Application of knowledge from Chapter 7 243 Chapter 8 Assessment of Children’s Speech 244 Overview 245 Components of Children’s Speech Assessments 245 Assessment of Intelligibility 245 Assessment of Speech Production: Elements 250 Assessment of Speech Production: Methods 257 Assessment of Oral Structure and Function 265 Assessment of Speech Perception 267 Assessment of Hearing 269 Assessment of Phonological Processing 269 Assessment of Emergent Literacy, Early Literacy, and Conventional Literacy Skills 271 Assessment of Psychosocial Aspects 272 Assessment of Children’s Communicative Participation 273 Language, Voice, and Fluency Assessments 275 Using the ICF-CY Framework to Scaffold Assessment Planning 276 Strategic Assessments Suited to Children with Different Types of SSD 277 Assessments for Children with Suspected Phonological Impairment 278 Differential Diagnosis and Prognostic Statements 283 Chapter summary 283 / Suggested reading 284 / Application of knowledge from Chapter 8 284 Appendix 8-1. Assessment plan 285 Appendix 8-2. Assessment plan for Luke 286 Chapter 9 Analysis of Children’s Speech 288 Overview 289 Traditional Articulation Analysis: Substitution, Omission, Distortion, Addition (SODA) 289 Differentiating Phonemic (Phonological) from Phonetic (Articulation) Errors 292 Independent and Relational Phonological Analyses 292 Children’s Independent and Relational Phonological Analysis (CHIRPA) 295 Speech Measures 319 Instrumental Analyses of Children’s Speech 324 Chapter summary 332 / Suggested reading 332 / Application of knowledge from Chapter 9 333 Appendix 9-1. Children’s Independent and Relational Phonological Analysis (CHIRPA) Template 334 Appendix 9-2. Children’s Independent and Relational Phonological Analysis (CHIRPA) Template: Worked example for Luke (4;3 years) 337 Chapter 10 Goal Setting 340 Overview 341 What Are Intervention Goals? 341 Identifying Goals for Children with SSD from Different Perspectives 341 Operationally Defined Goals 344 Goal Frameworks and Hierarchies 346 Generalization 348 Approaches to Goal Setting for Children with SSD 350 Goal Setting for Children with Phonological Impairment: The Importance of the Target 350 Goal Setting For Children with Articulation Impairment 363 Goal Setting Considerations for Children with Highly Unintelligible Speech 367 Goal Attack Strategies 368 Chapter summary 369 / Suggested reading 370 / Application of knowledge from Chapter 10 370 Appendix 10-1. Goal identification template 371 Chapter 11 Intervention Principles and Plans 372 Overview 373 What Is Intervention? 373 Principles of Intervention 375 Intervention Plans 392 Progress and Discharge Planning 402 Chapter summary 403 /Suggested reading 403 / Application of knowledge from Chapter 11 404 Appendix 11-1. Speech Sound Disorder Management Plan 405 Appendix 11-2. Speech Sound Disorder Intervention Session Plan 408 Chapter 12 Intervention Procedures and Evaluation 412 Overview 413 Intervention Procedures 413 Evaluating Intervention 422 A Framework for Problem-Solving Slow Progress 429 Chapter summary 432 / Suggested reading 433 / Application of knowledge from Chapter 12 433 Chapter 13 Phonological Intervention Approaches 434 Overview 435 Principles of Phonological Intervention in Practice 436 Minimal Pair Approach 437 Maximal Oppositions and Treatment of the Empty Set 444 Multiple Oppositions 447 Metaphon 450 Cycles 453 Speech Perception Intervention 456 Intervention for Concomitant Phonology and Morphosyntax Difficulties 459 Stimulability Intervention 462 Intervention for Inconsistent Speech Disorder 464 Brief Overview of Other Approaches for Managing Phonological Impairment in Children 467 Aligning Phonological Target Selection Approaches with Phonological Intervention Approaches 468 Phonological Intervention for Children Who Are Late Talkers 469 Phonological Intervention for Multilingual Children 472 Addressing the Risk of Literacy Difficulties in Preschoolers with Phonological Impairment 476 Chapter summary 477 /Suggested reading 478 / Application of knowledge from Chapter 13 478 Appendix 13-1. Core Vocabulary Words that may be relevant for working with children who speak Cantonese 479 Appendix 13-2. Core vocabulary words that may be relevant for working with children who speak Vietnamese 480 Appendix 13-3. Core vocabulary words that may be relevant for working with children who speak Spanish 482 Chapter 14 Articulatory and Motor Speech Intervention Approaches 483 Overview 484 Historical Perspectives on Articulation and Motor Speech Interventions 485 Intervention for Articulation Impairment 486 Intervention for Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS) 500 Intervention for Childhood Dysarthria 513 Chapter summary 518 / Suggested reading 518 / Application of knowledge from Chapter 14 519 Chapter 15 Evidence-Based Practice in Practice 520 Overview 521 What Is Evidence-Based Practice (EBP)? 521 Integrating External Published Evidence with the Reality of Clinical Practice and Client Factors, Values, and Preferences 522 Ethical Guidelines for Clinical Practice 533 Policies Affecting Clinical Practice 533 Associations That Support SLPs’ Clinical Practice and Continuing Education 536 Chapter summary 540 / Suggested reading 540 / Application of knowledge from Chapter 15 540 Chapter 16 Individual Children with Speech Sound Disorders: Case Studies 541 Overview 542 Luke (4;3 years): Phonological Impairment 542 Susie (7;4 years): Articulation Impairment–Lateral Lisp 554 Jarrod (7;0 years): Inconsistent Speech Disorder 555 Michael (4;2 years): Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS) 559 Lian (14;2 years): Childhood Dysarthria 563 Chapter summary 569 / Suggested reading 569 / Application of knowledge from Chapter 16 569 Glossary 570 References 583 Index 622