- ISBN: 9780134043388 | 0134043383
- Cover: Loose-leaf Package
- Copyright: 7/6/2015
This title is only available as a loose-leaf version with Pearson eText.
In this authoritative guide, leading scholars and researchers present information and evidence-based practices for dealing with the full range curriculum and instruction for individuals with severe intellectual disabilities and autism. The case studies throughout Instruction of Students with Severe Disabilities look at students of various ages and with a variety of disabilities, and each chapter includes an application to a student with autism. The content is presented with citations of supportive research, and the evidence-based practices are presented in clearly defined ways to ensure that teachers understand the practices and how to apply them in their own classrooms. PowerPoint slides created by the chapter authors are available for course instructors.
0134043383 / 9780134043388 Instruction of Students with Severe Disabilities, Pearson eText with Loose-Leaf Version -- Access Card Package, 8/e
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Dr. Martha Snell is a Professor Emeritus of Special Education in the Curry School of Education at the University of Virginia where she directed the teacher preparation program in severe disabilities for 37 years. With others, she has authored a number of books on teaching methods and the definition of intellectual disability. She has been active in a number of professional organizations, in particular: TASH and the American Association for Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities. She has directed both federal and state grants directed toward research and the preparation of teachers. Her research has addressed primarily individuals with autism and intellectual disability and their teachers, but more recently has included Head Start classrooms and young children at risk; research topics have encompassed the inclusion of students with disabilities in general education classrooms, effective teaching strategies, intervention with communication, and positive behavior support for problem behavior.
Dr. Fredda Brown is Professor in the Programs in Special Education at Queens College, City University of New York. In addition to Dr. Brown’s work as a Professor and teacher educator, she has spent many years providing educational and behavioral consultation to individuals with severe disabilities and their families. She has co-edited several books, and has authored numerous journal articles and book chapters relating to the education of individuals with severe disabilities. Most recently her work focuses on professional attitudes regarding behavioral treatment acceptability. Dr. Brown is past Editor-in-Chief of Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities (RPSD), and currently serves on several Editorial Boards, including the Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions (JPBI), and RPSD. She has sat on the National Board of Directors of the Association for Positive Behavior Supports (APBS) and TASH. She presents her work and ideas nationwide to professionals and families, advocating for positive, dignified and effective methods of addressing the learning and behavioral needs of individuals with disabilities.
Dr. John McDonnell is a Professor in the Department of Special Education at the University of Utah. His research is focused on curriculum and instruction, inclusive education, and transition programs for students with intellectual and developmental disabilities. His obtained a number of state and federal research, model development, and outreach grants to support his work in these areas. He has co-authored five textbooks and he published numerous journal articles and book chapters focused effective educational services for students with severe disabilities. He serves on the editorial boards of several of the top journals in special education including Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, and The Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation.
Michael F. Giangreco, Stacy K. Dymond, and Karrie A. Shogren Who Are Students With Severe Disabilities? 2 Definitions, 2 Societal Perceptions and Expectations, 3 Opportunities for Interaction and Reciprocal Benefit, 4 Reasons For Optimism and Concern 4 Reasons for Optimism, 4 Reasons for Concern, 6 Access to Quality Education 8 Access to Inclusive Environments, 8 Access to Individualized Curriculum, 10 Access to Purposeful Instruction, 17 Access to the Necessary Related Services and Supports, 22 Learning Outcome Summaries 25 Chapter 2 Fostering Family–Professional Partnerships 27 Ann P. Turnbull, H. Rutherford Turnbull, Kathleen Kyzar, and Nina Zuna Two Families and Two Windows for Understanding Families in Special Education 29 Individuals With Disabilities Education Act: Parental Rights and Responsibilities 29 IDEA’s Six Principles, 30 Assisting Families to Advocate: Parent Training and Information Resource Centers, 36 A Family Systems Perspective 37 Family Characteristics, 39 Family Interaction, 42 Family Functions, 46 Family Life Cycle, 48 Learning Outcome Summaries 52 Suggested Activity: A Tale of Two Families 53 Chapter 3 Assessment and Planning 55 Diane M. Browder, Jenny Root, Leah Wood, and Caryn Allison Assumptions of Assessment 56 Qualities and Types of Assessment 59 Technical Adequacy, 59 Types of Assessments, 59 Purpose of Assessment 64 Multidisciplinary Assessments Used to Determine Eligibility, 65 Assessments for School Accountability, 69 Assessments Used for IEP and Other Educational Planning, 71 Using the Assessment Information 82 Developing the IEP, 82 Learning Outcome Summaries 84 Chapter 4 Measuring Student Behavior and Learning 89 Fredda Brown, and Martha E. Snell Why Measure Student Behavior? 89 Using an Evidence Base to Guide Instruction, 90 Accountability Through Evaluation, 91 Foundations of Meaningful Measurement 92 Measurement of Important Behaviors, 92 Measurement That Is Contextually Appropriate, 95 Measurement That Is Accurate and Reliable, 96 Quantitative Measures 97 Rationale, 97 Measurement Strategies, 98 Organizing Student Performance Data 110 Designing Data Sheets, 110 Graphing Your Data, 110 Computer-Generated Graphs, 113 Saving Ungraphed Data, 114 Frequency of Data Collection, 114 Data Analysis for Better Decision-Making 115 Measures of Accuracy, 116 Types of Data, 118 Obtaining a Baseline, 119 Baseline–Intervention Comparison, 119 Graphing Conventions, 120 Visual Analysis, 121 Learning Outcome Summaries 127 Suggested Activities 129 Chapter 5 Selecting Teaching Strategies and Arranging Educational Environments 130 Martha E. Snell, Fredda Brown, and John McDonnell Principles to Guide Instruction 131 Work as Collaborative Teams, 132 Determine What to Teach, 132 Understand How the Stage of Learning Affects Instruction, 132 Reach Agreement on How Students Will Be Taught, 133 Monitor Student Learning with Performance Data, 134 “Universal” Strategies that are Effective With a Wide Range of Students 134 Information About Students, 135 Materials and Universal Design, 135 The Instructor, 137 Schedule for Instruction, 138 Teaching Arrangements, 139 One-to-One Instruction, 140 Small Group Instruction, 140 Enhanced Group Instruction, 142 Observation Learning, 142 Cooperative Learning Groups, 143 Group Instruction Guidelines, 144 Peer-Mediated Instruction and Peer Support, 144 Ï Peer Tutoring, 145 Ï Peer Support Programs, 146 Ï Individualized Adaptations: Accommodations and Modifications, 147 Ï Self-Management, 147 Specialized Teaching Strategies that are Effective With Students Who Have Severe Disabilities 150 Visual Modality Strategies, 150 Ï Visual Supports, 151 Ï Video Modeling, 155 Ï Task Analysis and Chaining, 157 Ï Task Analysis, 158 Ï Approaches for Teaching Chained Tasks, 160 Ï Elements of Discrete Teaching Trials, 161 Ï Discriminative Stimuli, 163 Ï Instructional Cues, 165 Ï Stimulus and Response Prompting, 165 Ï Stimulus Prompts, 165 Ï Response Prompts, 166 Ï Types of Instructional Prompts, 167 Ï Response Latency, 167 Ï Prompt Fading, 169 Ï Prompting Systems, 170 Ï General Guidelines for Using Structured Prompts and Cues, 176 Ï Consequence Strategies, 176 Ï Positive Reinforcement 177 Ï Planned Ignoring, 180 Ï Response to Errors, 181 Ï Arranging Teaching Trials, 184 Ï Distributed or Massed Trial Instruction, 184 Ï Contextualized or Decontextualized Instruction, 185 Ï Embedding Instruction Within Activities, 186 Learning Outcome Summaries 188 Suggested Activities 188 Chapter 6 Designing and Implementing Instruction for Inclusive Classes 190 Rachel E. Janney, and Martha E. Snell The Pyramid of Support/Response-to-Intervention Logic 191 Collaborative Teaming for Ongoing, Day-to-Day Planning and Delivery of Instruction 192 A Model for Making Individualized Adaptations 195 Criteria for Making Individualized Adaptations, 195 Ï Types of Adaptations: Curricular, Instructional, and Alternative, 196 Ï Curricular Adaptations: Individualize the Learning Goal, 197 Ï Instructional Adaptations: Individualize the Methods and/or Materials, 199 Ï Alternative Adaptations: Individualize the Goal, the Methods/ Materials, and the Activity, 201 Using the Model to Develop Individualized Adaptations 203 Step 1. Gather and Share Information About the Student(s) and the Classroom, 203 Ï Information About the Classroom, 204 Ï In-depth Information About Class Activities and Participation, 205 Ï Step 2. Determine When Adaptations Are Needed, 207 Ï Step 3. Plan and Implement Adaptations: First General, Then Specific 209 Ï General Adaptations, 209 Ï Specific Adaptations, 210 Ï Individualized Adaptations and Support Plans 211 Ï Step 4. Monitor and Evaluate, 216 Ï Monitoring Student Performance, 216 Ï Evaluating Student Progress, 219 Learning Outcome Summaries 221 Suggested Activities 222 Chapter 7 Designing and Implementing Individualized Positive Behavior Support 223 Robert E. O’Neill, and J. Matt Jameson Development of Positive Behavior Support (PBS) 225 Development of PBS in Schools: Multi-Tiered Systems of Support (MTSS) 226 Inclusion of Students With More Severe Disabilities in MTSS 227 Components of Individualized PBS 228 Three Phases of Implementation, 228 Ï Person-Centered Planning, 229 Ï Ecological Assessment, 230 Ï Why Conduct an FBA?, 230 Ï Outcomes of an FBA, 231 Ï Who Should Be Involved?, 231 Overview of the FBA Process 231 Assessment, 231 Ï Hypothesis Development, 232 Ï Direct Observations and Analyses, 232 Ï Development of Behavioral Intervention Plans (BIPs), 232 Ï Specify Who Will Do What and When, 233 Ï Ongoing Data Collection and Evaluation, 235 Indirect Data Collection 235 Archival Review, 235 Ï Interviews, 235 Ï Checklists, 239 Direct Observations 239 Validation of Summary Statements, 241 Functional Analysis 241 Procedures, 241 Behavior Intervention Plan Development 242 Important Characteristics of BIPs, 242 Ï Bridging the Gap from FBA to BIP: The Competing Behavior Model 243 Ï Formats for Behavior Intervention Plans, 246 Potential Intervention Plan Components 246 Lifestyle Changes, 246 Ï Classroom Modifications, 246 Ï Setting Events/Motivating Operations, 247 Ï Antecedent Strategies, 248 Ï Teaching and Prompting Alternative/Replacement Behaviors, 249 Ï Consequence Strategies for Appropriate and Challenging Behavior, 249 Ï Crisis/Emergency Intervention Strategies, 250 Ï Intervention Plan Evaluation and Monitoring, 252 Ï Example Behavior Intervention Plan for Micah, 253 General Issues Regarding Ethical and Professional Behavior 253 Technology Supports for FBA 254 Direct Observation Tools, 255 Technology Tools to Support Intervention Strategies 257 Setting Events, 257 Ï Antecedent Interventions, 258 Ï Behavioral Teaching Applications, 258 Ï Consequence Interventions, 259 Ï Communication, 259 Learning Outcome Summaries 261 Chapter 8 Understanding and Meeting the Health Care Needs of Students with Severe Disabilities 264 Donna Lehr, and Nancy Harayama Introduction 265 Students with Special Health Care Needs Defined 265 General Knowledge of Health Care Procedures 267 Hygienic Practices in Schools, 267 Understanding Specialized Health Care Procedures 275 Knowledge and Training Levels, 275 Ï Responsible Personnel, 276 Ï Specialized Health Care Procedures, 276 Care Coordination Through Communication 281 Individualized Health Care Plans, 282 Ï Record Keeping, 283 Inclusion in the General Education Setting 285 Acceptance by Peers, 285 Ï Specialized Education Content, 286 Ï Maximizing Educational Opportunities, 287 Other Considerations Related to the Education of Students With Special Health Care Needs 287 Medical Discrimination, 287 Ï Do Not Resuscitate, 289 Learning Outcome Summaries 290 Chapter 9 Key Concepts in Understanding Motor Disabilities 292 Mary Jane Rapport, Amy Barr, and Maria Jones Impact on Education and Participation 294 International Classification on Function (ICF), 295 Ï Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), 297 Ï Quality of Movement, 298 Team Support for Students 302 Team Collaboration and Communication, 302 Ï Service Delivery by the Team, 304 Meeting Students’ Needs 306 Daily Routines, 307 Ï Lifting, Transferring, Moving, 310 Ï Positioning, 311 Ï Learning, 313 Ï Ecological Inventory, 314 Ï Playground and Recreation, 315 Ï Transition to Employment or Other Postsecondary Settings, 316 Ï Use of Equipment to Enhance Participation, 317 Ï Use of Other Technologies and Equipment in the Classroom, 323 Ï Transportation 324 Learning Outcome Summaries 326 Suggested Activities 326 Chapter 10 Teaching Self-Care Skills 327 Martha E. Snell, Monica E. Delano, and Virginia L. Walker General Teaching Considerations 329 Identifying What to Teach, 329 Special Considerations for Toileting 336 Identify What to Teach, 337 Ï Identify Teaching Strategies, 342 Special Considerations for Eating and Mealtimes 349 Identify What to Teach, 350 Ï Identify Teaching Strategies for Eating and Mealtimes, 351 Ï Addressing Problem Behaviors During Mealtime, 353 Special Considerations for Dressing and Grooming 358 Identify What to Teach, 359 Ï Identify Teaching Strategies for Dressing and Grooming Skills, 362 Learning Outcome Summaries 368 Suggested Activities 370 Chapter 11 Promoting Social Competence and Peer Relationships 371 Erik W. Carter, and Matthew E. Brock Introduction 372 Contributions of Peer Relationships in the Lives of all Children 373 Friendships Are Important in the Lives of All Students, 373 Ï For Children and Youth with Severe Disabilities, 374 Ï For Peers Without Disabilities, 374 The Diversity of Peer Relationships 374 Defining Relationships, 375 Ï The Variety of Interactions and Relationships, 375 Ï The Role of Context and Relationships, 378 The Importance of Intentional Efforts to Foster Relationships 379 Relationships with Peers Who Do Not Have Disabilities, 379 Promoting Peer Interaction and Social Relationships 380 Assessment to Identify Needs and Opportunities, 381 Strategies for Addressing Social Needs and Maximizing Relationship Opportunities 385 Shared Space, 385 Ï Shared Activities, 385 Ï Shared Interests, 386 Ï Student-Focused Instruction, 386 Ï Peer-Focused Instruction, 387 Ï Promoting Valued Roles, 387 Ï Providing Appropriate Support, 387 Evidence-Based Strategies for Supporting Relationships 388 Inclusive General Education Classrooms, 388 Ï Peer Support Strategies, 388 Ï Informal School Contexts, 394 Ï Extracurricular and Other School-Sponsored Activities, 396 Ï After School, on Weekends, and During the Summer, 398 Monitoring Progress and Refining Efforts 399 Monitoring Interactions with Peers in Class, 399 Ï Monitoring Participation in Extracurricular Activities, 400 Ï Monitoring Student and Family Satisfaction 400 Learning Outcome Summaries 401 Suggested Activities 403 Practical Guides and Resources 403 Chapter 12 Teaching Communication Skills 404 Susan S. Johnston The Importance of Communication 404 Features of Communication 406 Preintentional or Intentional Communication, 406 Ï Presymbolic or Symbolic Communication, 407 Ï Modes of Communication, 407 Ï Communicative Functions, 410 Ï Conversational Functions, 410 Ï More Complex Communication, 411 Ï Comprehension, 412 Identifying and Assessing Communication Skills and Abilities—Deciding What to Teach 412 Formal and Informal Assessment Procedures, 413 Ï Indirect and Direct Observation Assessment Strategies, 413 Linking Assessment to Intervention, 416 Developing an Instructional Plan—Deciding How to Teach 417 Identify Opportunities for Instruction, 417 Ï Prompting the Communicative Behavior, 420 Ï Prompt Fading 423 Ï Consequences, 423 Ï Response Efficiency, 424 Ï Monitoring Progress, 425 Learning Outcome Summaries 435 Suggested Activities 436 Additional Resources 436 Chapter 13 Teaching Academic Skills 438 John McDonnell, and Susan R. Copeland Selecting Academic Skills for Instruction 440 General Guidelines, 440 Ï Strategies for Developing Academic IEP Goals and Objectives, 441 Determining the Instructional Approach 443 Teaching Within Typical Instructional Routines and Activities, 443 Ï Teaching Academics in Parallel Instructional Activities, 444 Ï Teaching Academics in Community-Based Activities, 444 Literacy Instruction 445 Definition of Literacy, 445 Ï Comprehensive Literacy Instruction, 445 Ï Teaching Conventional Early Reading and Writing, 447 Ï Word Recognition, 448 Math Instruction 462 Numeracy and Computation, 462 Science Instruction 470 Learning Outcome Summaries 471 Suggested Activities 472 Chapter 14 Building Skills for Home and Community 474 Linda M. Bambara, Freya Koger, Raquel Burns, and Dolly Singley Guidelines for Planning Instruction to Enhance Skills for the Home and Community 476 Guideline One: Use Person-Centered Planning Strategies to Create a Vision, 477 Ï Guideline Two: Coordinate Instruction with Families, 478 Ï Guideline Three: Encourage Self-Determination Through Choice-Making, Self- Cuing, and Self-Management Skills, 478 Ï Guideline Four: Select Appropriate Instructional Settings, 484 Ï Guideline Five: Incorporate General Case Instruction, 487 Ï Guideline Six: Coordinate Instruction with Transition Planning, 488 Strategies for Teaching Home and Community Skills 491 Skills for the Home, 491 Ï Skills for the Community, 500 Learning Outcome Summaries 507 Chapter 15 Transitioning from School to Employment 508 Valerie L. Mazzotti, and David W. Test Introduction 511 Definition of Transition 511 Transition Planning 514 Indicator 13 Requirements, 514 Ï Age-Appropriate Transition Assessment, 516 Ï Person-Centered Planning, 519 Ï Self-Determination and Student Involvement in the IEP 520 Teaching Employment Skills 523 Where to Provide Instruction, 523 Ï Where to Provide Instruction: School-Based Instruction (SBI) Options, 524 Ï Where to Provide Instruction: Community-Based Instruction (CBI) Options, 529 Ï How to Provide Instruction, 535 Ï How to Collect Instructional Data, 538 Ï Using Assistive Technology, 539 Ï Meeting Medical and Health Needs, 541 Adult Outcomes and Meaningful Employment Outcomes 542 Supported Employment, 542 Ï Natural Supports, 543 Ï Customized Employment, 544 Family Roles in Transition 544 Interagency Collaboration 546 Vocation Rehabilitation Services, 546 Ï Developmental Disabilities Services, 547 Ï Social Security Administration, 548 Ï One-Stop Career Centers, 550 Chapter 16 The Promise of Adulthood 554 Dianne L. Ferguson, and Philip M. Ferguson Exploring the Promise of Adulthood 556 Understanding Adulthood 557 The Changing Status of Adulthood, 557 Ï The Dimensions of Adulthood, 559 Denying Adulthood 566 Unending Childhood, 567 Ï Unfinished Transitions, 568 Ï Unhelpful Services, 570 Ï The Dilemma of Adulthood 572 Achieving Adulthood 573 The Concept of Support, 574 Ï What Is Different About Supported Adulthood?, 575 Ï Components of Supported Adulthood, 575 Living the Promise 579 Multidimensional Adulthood, 584 Ï A Cautionary Conclusion About Unkept Promises, 584 Learning Outcome Summaries 585 Suggested Activities 587 References 588 Name Index 623 Subject Index 630 --