# Introduction to Algorithms

, by Cormen, Thomas H.; Leiserson, Charles E.; Rivest, Ronald L.; Stein, Clifford**Note:**Supplemental materials are not guaranteed with Rental or Used book purchases.

- ISBN: 9780262533058 | 0262533057
- Cover: Paperback
- Copyright: 9/30/2009

NOT AVAILABLE IN THE US OR CANADA. International Student Paperback Edition. A new edition of the essential text and professional reference, with substantial new material on such topics as vEB trees, multithreaded algorithms, dynamic programming, and edge-base flow.

Preface | p. xiii |

Foundations | |

Introduction | p. 3 |

The Role of Algorithms in Computing | p. 5 |

Algorithms | p. 5 |

Algorithms as a technology | p. 11 |

Getting Started | p. 16 |

Insertion sort | p. 16 |

Analyzing algorithms | p. 23 |

Designing algorithms | p. 29 |

Growth of Functions | p. 43 |

Asymptotic notation | p. 43 |

Standard notations and common functions | p. 53 |

Divide-and-Conquer | p. 65 |

The maximum-subarray problem | p. 68 |

Strassen's algorithm for matrix multiplication | p. 75 |

The substitution method for solving recurrences | p. 83 |

The recursion-tree method for solving recurrences | p. 88 |

The master method for solving recurrences | p. 93 |

Proof of the master theorem | p. 97 |

Probabilistic Analysis and Randomized Algorithms | p. 114 |

The hiring problem | p. 114 |

Indicator random variables | p. 118 |

Randomized algorithms | p. 122 |

Probabilistic analysis and further uses of indicator random variables | p. 130 |

Sorting and Order Statistics | |

Introduction | p. 147 |

Heapsort | p. 151 |

Heaps | p. 151 |

Maintaining the heap property | p. 154 |

Building a heap | p. 156 |

The heapsort algorithm | p. 159 |

Priority queues | p. 162 |

Quicksort | p. 170 |

Description of quicksort | p. 170 |

Performance of quicksort | p. 174 |

A randomized version of quicksort | p. 179 |

Analysis of quicksort | p. 180 |

Sorting in Linear Time | p. 191 |

Lower bounds for sorting | p. 191 |

Counting sort | p. 194 |

Radix sort | p. 197 |

Bucket sort | p. 200 |

Medians and Order Statistics | p. 213 |

Minimum and maximum | p. 214 |

Selection in expected linear time | p. 215 |

Selection in worst-case linear time | p. 220 |

Data Structures | |

Introduction | p. 229 |

Elementary Data Structures | p. 232 |

Stacks and queues | p. 232 |

Linked lists | p. 236 |

Implementing pointers and objects | p. 241 |

Representing rooted trees | p. 246 |

Hash Tables | p. 253 |

Direct-address tables | p. 254 |

Hash tables | p. 256 |

Hash functions | p. 262 |

Open addressing | p. 269 |

Perfect hashing | p. 277 |

Binary Search Trees | p. 286 |

What is a binary search tree? | p. 286 |

Querying a binary search tree | p. 289 |

Insertion and deletion | p. 294 |

Randomly built binary search trees | p. 299 |

Red-Black Trees | p. 308 |

Properties of red-black trees | p. 308 |

Rotations | p. 312 |

Insertion | p. 315 |

Deletion | p. 323 |

Augmenting Data Structures | p. 339 |

Dynamic order statistics | p. 339 |

How to augment a data structure | p. 345 |

Interval trees | p. 348 |

Advanced Design and Analysis Techniques | |

Introduction | p. 357 |

Dynamic Programming | p. 359 |

Rod cutting | p. 360 |

Matrix-chain multiplication | p. 370 |

Elements of dynamic programming | p. 378 |

Longest common subsequence | p. 390 |

Optimal binary search trees | p. 397 |

Greedy Algorithms | p. 414 |

An activity-selection problem | p. 415 |

Elements of the greedy strategy | p. 423 |

Huffman codes | p. 428 |

Matroids and greedy methods | p. 437 |

A task-scheduling problem as a matroid | p. 443 |

Amortized Analysis | p. 451 |

Aggregate analysis | p. 452 |

The accounting method | p. 456 |

The potential method | p. 459 |

Dynamic tables | p. 463 |

Advanced Data Structures | |

Introduction | p. 481 |

B-Trees | p. 484 |

Definition of B-trees | p. 488 |

Basic operations on B-trees | p. 491 |

Deleting a key from a B-tree | p. 499 |

Fibonacci Heaps | p. 505 |

Structure of Fibonacci heaps | p. 507 |

Mergeable-heap operations | p. 510 |

Decreasing a key and deleting a node | p. 518 |

Bounding the maximum degree | p. 523 |

van Emde Boas Trees | p. 531 |

Preliminary approaches | p. 532 |

A recursive structure | p. 536 |

The van Emde Boas tree | p. 545 |

Data Structures for Disjoint Sets | p. 561 |

Disjoint-set operations | p. 561 |

Linked-list representation of disjoint sets | p. 564 |

Disjoint-set forests | p. 568 |

Analysis of union by rank with path compression | p. 573 |

Graph Algorithms | |

Introduction | p. 587 |

Elementary Graph Algorithms | p. 589 |

Representations of graphs | p. 589 |

Breadth-first search | p. 594 |

Depth-first search | p. 603 |

Topological sort | p. 612 |

Strongly connected components | p. 615 |

Minimum Spanning Trees | p. 624 |

Growing a minimum spanning tree | p. 625 |

The algorithms of Kruskal and Prim | p. 631 |

Single-Source Shortest Paths | p. 643 |

The Bellman-Ford algorithm | p. 651 |

Single-source shortest paths in directed acyclic graphs | p. 655 |

Dijkstra's algorithm | p. 658 |

Difference constraints and shortest paths | p. 664 |

Proofs of shortest-paths properties | p. 671 |

All-Pairs Shortest Paths | p. 684 |

Shortest paths and matrix multiplication | p. 686 |

The Floyd-Warshall algorithm | p. 693 |

Johnson's algorithm for sparse graphs | p. 700 |

Maximum Flow | p. 708 |

Flow networks | p. 709 |

The Ford-Fulkerson method | p. 714 |

Maximum bipartite matching | p. 732 |

Push-relabel algorithms | p. 736 |

The relabel-to-front algorithm | p. 748 |

Selected Topics | |

Introduction | p. 769 |

Multithreaded Algorithms | p. 772 |

The basics of dynamic multithreading | p. 774 |

Multithreaded matrix multiplication | p. 792 |

Multithreaded merge sort | p. 797 |

Matrix Operations | p. 813 |

Solving systems of linear equations | p. 813 |

Inverting matrices | p. 827 |

Symmetric positive-definite matrices and least-squares approximation | p. 832 |

Linear Programming | p. 843 |

Standard and slack forms | p. 850 |

Formulating problems as linear programs | p. 859 |

The simplex algorithm | p. 864 |

Duality | p. 879 |

The initial basic feasible solution | p. 886 |

Polynomials and the FFT | p. 898 |

Representing polynomials | p. 900 |

The DFT and FFT | p. 906 |

Efficient FFT implementations | p. 915 |

Number-Theoretic Algorithms | p. 926 |

Elementary number-theoretic notions | p. 927 |

Greatest common divisor | p. 933 |

Modular arithmetic | p. 939 |

Solving modular linear equations | p. 946 |

The Chinese remainder theorem | p. 950 |

Powers of an element | p. 954 |

The RSA public-key cryptosystem | p. 958 |

Primality testing | p. 965 |

Integer factorization | p. 975 |

String Matching | p. 985 |

The naive string-matching algorithm | p. 988 |

The Rabin-Karp algorithm | p. 990 |

String matching with finite automata | p. 995 |

The Knuth-Morris-Pratt algorithm | p. 1002 |

Computational Geometry | p. 1014 |

Line-segment properties | p. 1015 |

Determining whether any pair of segments intersects | p. 1021 |

Finding the convex hull | p. 1029 |

Finding the closest pair of points | p. 1039 |

NP-Completeness | p. 1048 |

Polynomial time | p. 1053 |

Polynomial-time verification | p. 1061 |

NP-completeness and reducibility | p. 1067 |

NP-completeness proofs | p. 1078 |

NP-complete problems | p. 1086 |

Approximation Algorithms | p. 1106 |

The vertex-cover problem | p. 1108 |

The traveling-salesman problem | p. 1111 |

The set-covering problem | p. 1117 |

Randomization and linear programming | p. 1123 |

The subset-sum problem | p. 1128 |

Appendix: Mathematical Background | |

Introduction | p. 1143 |

Summations | p. 1145 |

Summation formulas and properties | p. 1145 |

Bounding summations | p. 1149 |

Sets, Etc. | p. 1158 |

Sets | p. 1158 |

Relations | p. 1163 |

Functions | p. 1166 |

Graphs | p. 1168 |

Trees | p. 1173 |

Counting and Probability | p. 1183 |

Counting | p. 1183 |

Probability | p. 1189 |

Discrete random variables | p. 1196 |

The geometric and binomial distributions | p. 1201 |

The tails of the binomial distribution | p. 1208 |

Matrices | p. 1217 |

Matrices and matrix operations | p. 1217 |

Basic matrix properties | p. 1222 |

Bibliography | p. 1231 |

Index | p. 1251 |

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