Quantitative Research Methods for Communication
, by Wrench, Jason S.; ThomasMaddox, Candice; Peck Richmond, Virginia; McCroskey, James C.Note: Supplemental materials are not guaranteed with Rental or Used book purchases.
 ISBN: 9780190456405  019045640X
 Cover: Paperback
 Copyright: 11/2/2015

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Quantitative Research Methods for Communication: A HandsOn Approach, Third Edition, is a comprehensive and engaging guide to quantitative research. Drawing on their extensive research and teaching experience, the authors encourage students to take an active, handson role in the learning process. After giving students the tools they need to locate, conduct, collect, and present their research, the text provides them with the opportunity to immediately apply these skills in research scenarios.
Chapter 1 An Introduction to Communication Research
The History of the Social Sciences
The Nature of Communication
Understanding the Book's Format
Research outside the Walls of Academia
Chapter 2 Empirical Research
Ways of Knowing
Epistemology
Ordinary vs. Scientific Ways of Knowing
The Scientific Approach to Communication Research
Scientific Method
Theories
Predictions/Hypotheses
Observations
Empirical Generalizations
Conclusion
Research outside the Walls of Academia
Chapter 3 Research Ethics
Defining Ethics
Good meansGood End: Ethical Behavior
Bad MeansBad End: Unethical Behavior
Bad MeansGood End: Machiavellian Ethic
Good MeansBad End: Subjective Ethic
The Belmont Report's Effect on Research Ethics
Informed Consent
Principle of Beneficence
Justice
Institutional Review Boards
Institutional Review Board Basics
Informed Consent
Institutional Review Board Processes
Basic IRB Functions
Advanced IRB Functions
Specific Ethical Issues for Research
Data Accuracy
Data Sharing
Duplicate Data Publication
Post Hoc Hypothesis Revision
Participant Identity Disclosures
Authorship Credit
Conflicts of Interest
Plagiarism
Source Not Cited Types of Plagiarism
Source Cited Types of Plagiarism
Ethical Research outside Academia
Conclusion
Chapter 4 Searching for Previous Research and APA Style
Step One: Identifying the Topic
Step Two: Clarifying the Research Question and Generating Key Terms
Stating the Topic in the Form of a Research Question
Identifying Key Terms and Synonymous Terms
Step Three: Locating Sources of Information
Types of Information Sources
Locating Information Sources
Handbooks and Subject Encyclopedias
Electronic Databases
The World Wide Web
Working with Librarians
Evaluating Web Sources
Step Four: Organizing and Evaluating Information
Step Five: Citing Sources of Information Using the APA Format
What Information Needs to be Referenced?
Citing Sources of Information
Parenthetical Citations
Quotations and Paraphrases
APA Paper Formatting
Creating a Title Page
Creating an Abstract
Creating the First Page
Creating the Reference Page
Conclusion
Chapter 5 Research Structure and Literature Reviews
The Abstract
The Introduction
AttentionGetter
Using Statistics or Claims
Posing a Rhetorical Question
Using an Acknowledged Fact
Using a Story or Illustration
Quoting or Acknowledging a Source
Link to Topic
Significance of Topic
Espousal of Credibility
Thesis and Preview
Literature Review
Five Reasons FOR Literature Reviews
Previous Research
Chronological
Cause and Effect
Compare and Contrast
ProblemCauseSolution
Psychological
Categorical/Topical
General to Specific
Specific to General
Known to Unknown
Study Rationale
Method Section
Participants
Apparatus
Procedure
Instrumentation
Results Section
Discussion Section
The Conclusion
Research Outside the Walls of Academia
Reading & Critiquing Academic Literature
Preparing a First Draft
Step 1: Identify Your General Topic
Step 2: Determine the Type of Study you are Conducting
Step 3: Determine what Variables You will Examine
Step 4: Search for Primary Sources
Step 5: Obtain Full Text References
Step 6: Look for Other References in Obtained Materials
Step 7: Narrow Your List of References
Step 8: Organize References by Major and Subtopics
Step 9: Look for Gaps in Your References
Step 10: Find References to Fill Gaps
Step 11: Create a Literature Review Outline
Step 12: Write
Conclusion
Chapter 6 Variables
How Are Research Projects Developed?
Variables: Units of Analysis
Types of Units
Aspects of Variables
Variable attributes
Variable values
Understanding relationships and Differences
Relationships
Differences
Types of Variables
Variable Levels
Nominal Variables
Ordinal Variables
Interval Variables
Likert
Semantic Differential
Staple's
Scalogram
Ratio Variables
Communication Variables
Nominal Variables
Ordinal Variables
Interval Variables
Common Interval Variable Measures
Communication Apprehension
Ethnocentrism
Humor Assessment
Nonverbal Immediacy
Sociocommunicative Orientation
Willingness to Communicate
Beliefs and Attitudes
Ratio Variables
Writing Up Scales Using APA Style
Participants
Procedures
Instrumentation
Conclusion
Chapter 7 Measurement
Numbers and Things
Review of Measurement Levels
Nominal
Ordinal
Interval
Ratio
A History of Measurement
Likert scales
Semantic differential
Measuring Communication
Personality Traits/States
Beliefs and Attitudes
Knowledge
Developing Your Operationalization
Conceptualization
Operationalization
Constructing Questions
One Measure, Multiple Factors
Finding Mental Measures
Measurement and Statistical Analysis
Research Outside the Walls of Academia
Conclusion
Chapter 8 Reliability and Validity
Reliability
Scalar Reliability
TestRetest Reliability
Alternate Forms Reliability
SplitHalf Reliability
Cronbach's Alpha Reliability
Computer Printouts of Cronbach's Alpha
SPSS and Cronbach's Alpha
Excel and Cronbach's Alpha
APA Discussion
Alpha Reliabilities from this Book
Reliabilities in the Real World
Improving Reliability of Measurement
Validity
Face or Content Validity
Criterion Validity
Predictive
Concurrent
Retrospective
Construct or Factorial Validity
Validity Threats
Problems with Measurement
Research Outside the Walls of Academia
Conclusion
Chapter 9 Survey Research
When to Use a Survey
Do You Know What You Want to Ask?
Do You Really Need to Collect New Data?
Do Your Participants Know Anything or Will They Even Tell You?
Is Your Goal Generalizability?
How to Conduct Survey Research
STEP 1: Picking Your Questions
Nominal Level Questions
Ordinal Level Questions
Interval Level Questions
Ratio Level Questions
OpenEnded Questions
STEP 2: Creating Clear Instructions
STEP 3: Study Design
STEP 4: Data Processing and Analysis
STEP 5: Pilot Testing
Use Actual Survey Population Members
Anticipate Survey Context
Test Parts of the Survey
Determining a Pilot Sample Size
Ask Questions After Someone Completes the Survey
Disseminating Your Surveys
Interviewing
FacetoFace Interviewing
Telephone Interviewing
SelfAdministration
Mass Administration
Mailed Administration
Internet Administration
Advantages and Disadvantages of SelfAdministered Surveying
Problem Areas Associated with Survey Research
Response Rate
Unit Nonresponse
Item Nonresponse
Effects of Nonresponse
Improving Response Rates
Translating Surveys into Other Languages
Semantic Equivalence
Conceptual Equivalence
Normative Equivalence
Simple Direct Translation
Modified Direct Translation
Translation/BackTranslation
Parallel Blind Technique
Random Probe
Using the Research Project Worksheet
Question
Design
Setting
Participants
Specific Characteristics
Recruitment
Consent
Variables
Independent Variables
Dependent Variables
Hypotheses/Research Questions
Statistical Testing
Tentative Study Title
Principal Researcher(s)
Measurement outside of Academia
Conclusion
Chapter 10 Content Analysis
Conducting a Content Analysis
Theory and Rationale
conceptualization
Operationalization
Coding schemes
Sampling
Training and Pilot Reliability
Introduction to Coding Book
Sample Coding
Coding of Initial Data
Initial Reliability
Retraining
Final Coding
Final Reliability
Tabulation and Reporting
Conclusion
Chapter 11 Experimental Design
What Are Experiments and Why Do We Do Them?
Rationale for Experimental Research
Aspects of Experimental Design
Random Assignment
Manipulation of the Independent Variable
Measurement of the Dependent Variable
Controlling an Experiment
Conducting an Experiment
Introducing the Experiment and Obtaining Consent
Random Assignment
Manipulate the Independent Variable
Measure the Dependent Variable
Debriefing
Threats to Experimental Validity
Historical flaw
Maturation
Testing flaw
Regression to the Mean
Selection Threat
Attrition
Common Experimental Designs
Preexperimental Designs
OneShot Case Study
OneGroup Pretest Posttest Design
Static Group Comparisons
QuasiExperimental Designs
PretestPosttest Design
Time Series
Multiple Time Series
Switching Replications Design
True Experimental Designs
PretestPosttest Design
TwoGroup PosttestOnly Design
Randomized Switching Replications Design
Solomon FourGroup Design
Final Thoughts on Experiments
Conclusion
Chapter 12 Big Data
What is the Data in Big Data?
Human Generated Data
Machine Generated Data
Big Data?
Big Data Explained
Laney's 3Vs
Volume
Velocity
Variety
Four More V's
Veracity
Variability
Visualization
Value
Big Data and the Cloud
Understanding the Cloud
The Cloud and Data
Big Data in the Cloud
Big Data Analysis
Data Mining
Monitoring & Anomalies
Communication and Big Data
Big Data Ethics
Privacy
Identity
Ownership
Reputation
Chapter 13 Sampling Methods
Why Use a Sample?
Population
Sample
The Sampling Process
Selecting a Sample Design
PROBABILITY SAMPLING
Simple Random Samples
Stratified Random Samples
Cluster Samples
Systematic Samples
Sampling Error
Nonprobability Samples
Convenience Samples
Volunteer Samples
Purposive Samples
Quota Samples
Network Sample
Determining Sample Size
Common Sense Sample Recruiting
Ethical Recruitment
Conclusion
Chapter 14 Hypothesis Testing
Hypotheses
OneTailed Hypotheses
TwoTailed Hypotheses
Research Questions
Directional Research Questions
Nondirectional Research Questions
Alternative & Null Hypotheses
Hypothesis Testing Case Study
Hypothesis Testing in the Case Study
From Random Samples to a Whole Population
Testing for Significance
Step 1: Set the Probability Level
Step 2: Conduct a Statistical Test
Step 3: Comparing Calculated and Critical Values
Testing for Power
Effect Sizes
Understanding Error
The Confidence Interval
Power
Type I Error
Type II Error
Conclusion
Chapter 15 Descriptive Statistics
The Benefits of Statistics
Descriptive Versus Inferential Statistics
Measures of Central Tendency
Mean
Median
Mode
Frequency Distributions
SPSS and Frequency Distributions
Excel and Frequency Distributions
Frequency Distributions and Charts
Skewness & Kurtosis
Measures of Variability
Range
Sum of Squares
Variance
Standard deviation
Data Set Variability
Conclusion
Chapter 16 ChiSquare Test of Independence
Case Study Introduction
ChiSquare Background Information
StepbyStep Approach to the ChiSquare Test of Independence
Computer Printouts of the ChiSquare Test of Independence
SPSS and ChiSquares
Excel and ChiSquares
APA WriteUp
Discussion of Findings
PostHoc APA WriteUp
Biological Sex and Book Edition
Discussion of Brummans and Miller's Article
Article Purpose
Methodology
Results
ChiSquares outside Academia
Conclusion
Chapter 17 Independent Samples tTests
Case Study Introduction
Independent Samples tTest Background Information
StepbyStep Approach to the Independent tTest
Computer Printouts of the Independent tTest
SPSS and tTests
Excel and tTests
APA WriteUp (SPSS)
APA WriteUp (Excel)
Discussion of Findings
Biological Sex and Communication Apprehension
APA WriteUp (SPSS)
Discussion
Calculating Effect Sizes
Discussion of the Weber, Fornash, Corrigan, and Neupauer Article
Article Purpose
Methodology
Results
Paired tTests
tTests outside Academia
Conclusion
Chapter 18 OneWay Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
Case Study Introduction
OneWay ANOVA Background Information
StepbyStep Approach to the OneWay ANOVA
Computer Printouts of the OneWay ANOVA
SPSS and OneWay Anovas
Multiple Comparison Tests
Excel and OneWay Anovas
APA WriteUp (Without Chart)
APA WriteUp (With Chart)
Discussion of Findings
Political Affiliation and Humor Assessment
APA WriteUp
Discussion
Discussion of the Boiarsky, Long, and Thayer Article
Article Purpose
Methodology
Results
Oneway ANOVAs outside Academia
Conclusion
Chapter 19 Correlation
Correlation Background Information
Types of Relationships
Correlation Not Causation
Correlation Assumptions
Case Study Introduction
StepbyStep Approach to the Pearson ProductMoment Correlation
Computer Printouts of the Pearson ProductMoment Correlation
SPSS and Pearson ProductMoment Correlations
Excel and Pearson ProductMoment Correlations
APA WriteUp
Discussion
Relationships Between Communication Apprehension, Willingness to Communicate, and Beliefs About Public Speaking
APA WriteUp
A Note about R
Reading Large Correlation Tables
Discussion of the Chesebro Article
Article Purpose
Methodology
Results
Discussion of the Punyanunt Article
Article Purpose
Methodology
Results
Correlations outside Academia
Conclusion
Chapter 20 Regression
Case Study Introduction
Regression Background Information
StepbyStep Approach to a Linear Regression
Computer Printouts of the Linear Regression
SPSS and Simple Linear Regressions
Excel and the Simple Linear Regression
APA WriteUp
Discussion
Relationships Between Communication Apprehension and Beliefs About Public Speaking
APA WriteUp
Understanding Multiple Linear Regressions
APA WriteUp
Discussion
Discussion of the Wrench and BoothButterfield Article
Article Purpose
Methodology
Results
Discussion of the Rocca and VoglBauer Article
Article Purpose
Methodology
Results
Regressions outside Academia
Conclusion
Chapter 21 Advanced Statistical Procedures
Difference Tests
Factorial Anova
Example
Explanation
APA WriteUp
Discussion
Analysis of Covariance
Example
Explanation
APA WriteUp
Discussion
Multivariate Analysis of Variance
Example
Explanation
APA WriteUp
Discussion
Repeated Measures Anova
Example
Explanation
APA WriteUp
Discussion
Relationship Tests
Path Analysis
Example
Explanation
APA WriteUp
Discussion
Structural Equation Modeling
Example
Explanation
APA WriteUp
Discussion
Factor Analysis
Example
Explanation
APA WriteUp
Discussion
Canonical Correlations
Example
Explanation
APA WriteUp
Discussion
Conclusion
Chapter 22 Presenting Research
Writing a Discussion Section
Providing a Summary of Major Findings
Providing an Interpretation of Findings
Discussing the Relationship Between Findings and Previous Studies
Acknowledging Limitations
Discussing Implications and future directions
Writing the Abstract
Presenting at Conferences
Divisions and Interest Groups
Submitting Research for Conference Review
Types of Conference Presentations
Paper Presentations
Poster Presentations
ScholartoScholar Posters
Panel Discussions
Publication
Journal Review Process
Submission Process
Review Process
Research outside the Walls of Academia
Writing for Business
Research and the General Public
Writing Statistical Stories
Infographics
Conclusion
Appendix A Qualitative Research
Appendix B Textbook Questionnaire
Appendix C OpenSource Statistical Software Alternatives