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ISBN: 9781259690884 | 1259690881
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Table of Contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter 1: Critical Thinking: Why It's Important
What is Critical Thinking?
Critical Thinking in Everyday Life
Cognitive Development in College Students
Characteristics of a Good Critical Thinker
Research and Inquiry Skills
Flexibility and Tolerance for Ambiguity
Creative Problem Solving
Attention, Mindfulness, and Curiosity
Critical Thinking and Self-Development
Living the Self-Examined Life
Developing a Rational Life Plan
The Importance of Self-Esteem
Critical Thinking in a Democracy
Barriers to Critical Thinking
The Three-Tier Model of Thinking
Types of Resistance
Rationalization and Doublethink
Cognitive and Social Dissonance
Stress as a Barrier
Critical Thinking Issue: Perspectives on Affirmative Action in College Admissions
Chapter 2: Reason and Emotion
What is Reason?
Traditional Views of Reason
Gender, Age, and Reason
Dreams and Problem Solving
The Role of Emotion in Critical Thinking
Cultural Attitudes Toward Emotion
Emotional Intelligence and the Positive Effects of Emotion
Negative Effects of Emotion
Integrating Emotion and Reason
Artificial Intelligence, Reason, and Emotion
The Field of Artificial Intelligence
Can Computers Think?
Can Computers Feel Emotion?
Faith and Reason
Fideism: Faith Transcends Reason
Rationalism: Religious Beliefs and Reason
Critical Rationalism: Faith and Reason are Compatible
Religion, Spirituality and Real-Life Decisions
Critical Thinking Issue: Perspectives on on Reason and Proofs for the Existence of God
Chapter 3: Language and Communication
What is Language?
Functions of Language
Denotative and Connotative Meanings
Verbal Disputes Based on Ambiguous Definitions
Individual Styles of Communication
Sex and Racial Differences in Communication Style
Cultural Differences in Communication Styles
The Use of Language to Manipulate
Deception and Lying
Critical Thinking Issue: Perspectives on Free Speech Zones on College Campuses
Chapter 4: Knowledge, Evidence and Errors in Thinking
Human Knowledge and Its Limitations
Rationalism and Empiricism
The Structure of the Mind
Direct Experience and False Memories
The Unreliability of Hearsay and Anecdotal Evidence
Experts and Credibility
Evaluating Evidence for a Claim
Cognitive and Perceptual Errors in Thinking
Misperception of Random Data
Memorable Events Error
Social Errors and Biases
"One of Us/One of Them" Error
Group Pressure and Conformity
Diffusion of Responsibility
Critical Thinking Issue: Perspectives on Evaluating Existence for the Existence of Unidentified Flying Objects
Chapter 5: Informal Fallacies
What is a Fallacy?
Fallacies of Ambiguity
Fallacy of Accent
Fallacy of Division
Fallacy of Composition
Fallacies of Relevance
Personal Attack (
Appeal to Force (Scare Tactics)
Appeal to Pity
Appeal to Ignorance
Fallacies Involving Unwarranted Assumptions
Begging the Question
Inappropriate Appeal to Authority
Strategies for Avoiding Fallacies
Critical Thinking Issues: Perspectives on Gun Control
Chapter 6: Recognizing, Analyzing, and Constructing Arguments
What is an Issue?
Identifying an Issue
Asking the Right Questions
Recognizing an Argument
Distinguishing Between Argumentation and Rhetoric
Types of Arguments
Premises and Conclusions
Nonarguments: Explanations and Conditional Statements
Breaking Down and Diagramming Arguments
Breaking Down an Argument into Propositions
Identifying the Premise(s) and Conclusion in Complex Arguments
Diagramming an Argument
Clarity: Is the Argument Clear and Unambiguous?
Credibility: Are The Premises Supported by Evidence?
Relevance: Are The Premises Relevant to the Conclusion?
Completeness: Are There Any Unstated Premises and Conclusions?
Soundness: Are the Premises True and Do They Support the Conclusion?
Constructing an Argument
Steps for Constructing an Argument
Using Arguments in Making Real-Life Decisions
Critical Thinking Issue: Perspectives on Same Sex Marriage
Chapter 7: Inductive Arguments
What is an Inductive Argument?
The Use of Inductive Reasoning in Everyday Life
Using Polls, Surveys, and Sampling to Make Generalizations
Applying Generalizations to Particular Cases
Evaluating Inductive Arguments Using Generalization
Uses of Analogies
Arguments Based on Analogies
Analogies as Tools for Refuting Arguments
Evaluating Inductive Arguments Based on Analogies
Establishing Causal Relationships
Causal Arguments in Public Policy and Everyday Decision Making
Evaluating Causal Arguments
Critical Thinking Issue: Perspectives on Legalizing Marijuana
Chapter 8: Deductive Arguments
What is a Deductive Argument?
Deductive Reasoning and Syllogisms
Valid and Invalid Arguments
Sound and Unsound Arguments
Types of Deductive Arguments
Arguments by Elimination
Arguments Based on Mathematics
Arguments from Definition
Evaluating Hypothetical Syllogisms for Validity
Standard-Form Categorical Syllogisms
Quantity and Quality
Diagramming Propositions with Venn Diagrams
Using Venn Diagrams to Evaluate Categorical Syllogisms
Translating Ordinary Arguments into Standard Form
Rewriting Everyday Propositions in Standard-Form
Identifying the Three Terms in the Argument
Putting the Argument in Standard Form
Critical Thinking Issue: Perspectives on the Death Penalty
Chapter 9: Critical Thinking in Ethics and Moral Decision-Making
What is Moral Reasoning?
Moral Values and Happiness
Conscience and Moral Sentiment
The Development of Moral Reasoning
Lawrence Kohlberg's Stage Theory of Moral Development
Carol Gilligan on Moral Reasoning Women
The Development of Moral Reasoning in College Students
Moral Theories: Morality is Relative
Moral Theories: Morality is Universal
Utilitarianism (Consequence-Based Ethics)
Deontology (Duty-Based Ethics)
Recognizing Moral Arguments
Constructing Moral Arguments
Evaluating Moral Arguments
Resolving Moral Dilemmas
Critical Thinking Issue: Perspectives on Abortion
Chapter 10: Marketing and Advertising
Marketing in a Consumer Culture
Avoiding Confirmation Bias and Other Errors in Thinking
The SWOT Model
Consumer Awareness of Marketing Strategies
Advertising and the Media
The Role of Advertising in the Media
Television Advertising and Children
Common Fallacies in Advertisements
Rhetorical Devices and Misleading Language
Faulty and Weak Arguments
A Critique of Advertising
Critical Thinking Issue: Perspectives on Advertising and Children
Chapter 11: Mass Media
Mass Media in the United States
The Rise of Mass Media
The Media Today
The News Media
Sensationalism and the News as Entertainment
Depth of News Analysis
Bias in the News
Misrepresentation of Scientific Findings
Government Influence and Bias
Evaluating Scientific Reports
Impact of the Internet on Daily Life
The Internet as "The Great Equalizer"
Misuse of the Internet: Pornography and Plagiarism
Media Literacy: A Critical Thinking Approach
Experiencing the Media
Interpreting Media Messages
Critical Thinking Issue: Internet Plagiarism Among College Students
Chapter 12: Science
What is Science?
The Scientific Revolution
Assumptions Underlying Science
Limitations of Science
Science and Religion
The Scientific Method
1. Identify the Problem
2. Develop an Initial Hypothesis
3. Gather Additional Information and Refine the Hypothesis
4. Test the Hypothesis
5. Evaluate the Hypothesis Based on Testing or Experimental Results
Evaluating Scientific Hypotheses
Relevance to the Problem Under Study
Consistency with Well-Established Theories
Testability and Falsifiability
Distinguishing Between Scientific and Pseudoscientific Hypotheses
Research Methodology and Scientific Experiments
Research Methodology and Design
Single Group (Pretest-Posttest) Experiments
Evaluating an Experimental Design
Interpreting Experimental Results
Ethical Concerns in Scientific Experimentation
Thomas Kuhn and Scientific Paradigms
Normal Science and Paradigms
Scientific Revolutions and Paradigm Shifts
Critical Thinking Issue: Evolution versus Intelligent Design
Chapter 13: Law and Politics
The Social Contract Theory of Government
The State of Nature
Social Contract Theory
The Development of Democracy in the United States
Representative Democracy: A Safeguard against the "Tyranny of the Majority"
Liberal Democracy: Protection of Individual Rights
Political Campaigns and Elections
Voting: A Right or a Duty?
The Executive Branch of Government
The Role of the Executive Branch
Executive Orders and National Security
Checks on Executive Power
The Legislative Branch of Government
The Role of the Legislative Branch
Citizens and Legislation
Unjust Laws and Civil Disobedience
The Judicial Branch of Government
The Role of the Judicial Branch
Rules of Evidence
Legal Reasoning and the Doctrine of Legal Precedent
Critical Thinking Issue: Perspectives on the Use of Drones in Warfare
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