# Logic

, by Baronett, Stan**Note:**Supplemental materials are not guaranteed with Rental or Used book purchases.

- ISBN: 9780190691714 | 0190691719
- Cover: Paperback
- Copyright: 9/14/2018

Featuring an exceptionally clear writing style and a wealth of real-world examples and exercises,

The text is enhanced by

*Logic,*Fourth Edition, shows how logic relates to everyday life, demonstrating its applications in such areas as the workplace, media and entertainment, politics, science and technology, student life, and elsewhere. The examples and exercises were chosen to be interesting, thought-provoking, and relevant to students.The text is enhanced by

**Dashboard,**Oxford University Press' learning management platform, which offers a wealth of learning resources, including interactive proof-checking and truth table exercises. The fourth edition features new illustrations in Chapter 1; clearer treatments of existential import and the traditional square of opposition in Chapter 5; and a new appendix, "The LSAT and Logical Reasoning."**Stan Baronett**is the author of

*Journey Into Philosophy*(2016).

*Preface*

**PART I: SETTING THE STAGE**

**Chapter 1. What Logic Studies**

**A. Statements and Arguments**

**B. Recognizing Arguments**

*Exercises 1B*

**C. Arguments and Explanations**

*Exercises 1C*

**D. Truth and Logic**

**E. Deductive and Inductive Arguments**

*Exercises 1E*

**F. Deductive Arguments: Validity and Soundness**

Argument Form

Counterexamples

Summary of Deductive Arguments

*Exercises 1F*

**G. Inductive Arguments: Strength and Cogency**

Techniques of Analysis

The Role of New Information

Summary of Inductive Arguments

*Exercises 1G*

**H. Reconstructing Arguments**

*Exercises 1H*

LOGIC CHALLENGE: The Problem of the Hats

**PART II: INFORMAL LOGIC**

**Chapter 2. Language Matters**

**A. Intension and Extension**

Terms, Use, and Mention

Two Kinds of Meaning

Proper Names

*Exercises 2A*

**B. Using Intensional Definitions**

Synonymous Definitions

Word Origin Definitions

Operational Definitions

Definition by Genus and Difference

**C. Using Extensional Definitions**

Ostensive Definitions

Enumerative Definitions

Definition by Subclass

*Exercises 2C*

**D. Applying Definitions**

Stipulative Definitions

Lexical Definitions

Functional Definitions

Precising Definitions

Theoretical Definitions

Persuasive Definitions

*Exercises 2D*

**E. Guidelines for Informative Definitions**

*Exercises 2E*

**F. Cognitive and Emotive Meaning**

*Exercises 2F*

**G. Factual And Verbal Disputes**

*Exercises 2G*

LOGIC CHALLENGE: The Path

**Chapter 3. Diagramming Arguments**

**A. The Basics of Diagramming Arguments**

**B. Diagramming Extended Arguments**

*Exercises 3B*

LOGIC CHALLENGE: The Train to Vegas

**Chapter 4. Informal Fallacies**

**A. Why Study Fallacies?**

**B. Fallacies Based on Personal Attacks or Emotional Appeals**

**Fallacies Based on Personal Attacks**

1.

*Ad Hominem*Abusive

2.

*Ad Hominem*Circumstantial

3. Poisoning the Well

*4. Tu Quoque*

**Fallacies Based on Emotional Appeals**

5. Appeal to the People

6. Appeal to Pity

7. Appeal to Fear or Force

Summary of Fallacies Based on Personal Attacks

Summary of Fallacies Based on Emotional Appeals

*Exercises 4B*

**C. Weak Inductive Argument Fallacies**

**Generalization Fallacies**

8. Rigid Application of a Generalization

9. Hasty Generalization

10. Composition

11. Division

12. Biased Sample

False Cause Fallacies

*13. Post Hoc*

14. Slippery Slope

Summary of Weak Inductive Argument Fallacies

*Exercises 4C*

**D. Fallacies of Unwarranted Assumption or Diversion**

**Unwarranted Assumption**

15. Begging the Question

16. Complex Question

17. Appeal to Ignorance

18. Appeal to an Unqualified Authority

19. False Dichotomy

**Fallacies of Diversion**

20. Equivocation

21. Straw Man

22. Red Herring

23. Misleading Precision

24. Missing the Point

Summary of Fallacies of Unwarranted Assumption and Diversion

*Exercises 4D*

**E. Recognizing Fallacies in Ordinary Language**

*Exercises 4E*

LOGIC CHALLENGE: A Clever Problem

**PART III: FORMAL LOGIC**

**Chapter 5. Categorical Propositions**

**A. Categorical Propositions**

*Exercises 5A*

**B. Quantity, Quality, and Distribution**

*Exercises 5B*

**C. Existential Import**

**D. The Modern Square of Opposition and Venn Diagrams**

Venn Diagrams

*Exercises 5D*

**E. Conversion, Obversion, and Contraposition in the Modern Square**

Conversion

Obversion

Contraposition

Diagrams

Summary of Conversion, Obversion, and Contraposition

*Exercises 5E*

**F. The Traditional Square of Opposition and Venn Diagrams**

*Exercises 5F.1*

Venn Diagram and the Traditional Square

*Exercises 5F.2*

**G. Conversion, Obversion, and Contraposition in the Traditional Square**

Summary of Conversion, Obversion, and Contraposition

Conversion

Obversion

Contraposition

*Exercises 5G*

**H. Translating Ordinary Language into Categorical Propositions**

Missing Plural Nouns

Nonstandard Verbs

Singular Propositions

Adverbs and Pronouns

"It Is False That . . . "

Implied Quantifiers

Nonstandard Quantifiers

Conditional Statements

Exclusive Propositions

"The Only"

Propositions Requiring Two Translations

*Exercises 5H*

LOGIC CHALLENGE: Group Relationship

**Chapter 6. Categorical Syllogisms**

**A. Standard-Form Categorical Syllogisms**

**B. Mood and Fiture**

*Exercises 6B*

**C. Diagramming in the Modern Interpretation**

Diagramming A-Propositions

Diagramming E-Propositions

Diagramming I-Propositions

Diagramming O-Propositions

Wrapping Up the X

Is the Syllogism Valid?

*Exercises 6C*

**D. Rules and Fallacies Under the Modern Interpretation**

Rule 1: The middle term must be distributed in at least one premise

*Associated Fallacy: Undistributed Middle*

Rule 2: If a term is distributed in the conclusion, then it must be distributed in a premise

*Associated Fallacies: Illicit Major/Illicit Minor*

Rule 3: A categorical syllogism cannot have two negative premises

*Associated Fallacy: Exclusive Premises*

Rule 4: A negative premise must have a negative conclusion

*Associated Fallacy: Affirmative Conclusion/Negative Premise*

Rule 5: A negative conclusion must have a negative premise

*Associated Fallacy: Negative Conclusion/Affirmative Premises*

Rule 6: Two universal premises cannot have a particular conclusion

*Associated Fallacy: Existential Fallacy*

*Exercises 6D*

**E. Diagramming in the Traditional Interpretation**

A-Propositions

E-Propositions

*Exercises 6E*

**F. Rules and Fallacies Under the Traditional Interpretation**

*Exercises 6F*

**G. Ordinary Language Arguments**

Reducing the Number of Terms in an Argument

*Exercises 6G.1*

Paraphrasing Ordinary Language Arguments

Categorical Propositions and Multiple Arguments

*Exercises 6G.2*

**H. Enthymemes**

*Exercises 6H*

**I. Sorites**

*Exercises 6I*

LOGIC CHALLENGE: Relationships Revisited

**Chapter 7. Propositional Logic**

**A. Logical Operators and Translations**

Simple and Compound Statements

Negation

Conjunction

Disjunction

Conditional

Distinguishing "If" from "Only If"

Sufficient and Necessary Conditions

Biconditional

*Exercises 7A*

**B. Compound Statements**

Well-Formed Formulas

*Exercises 7B.1*

Main Operator

*Exercises 7B.2*

Translations and the Main Operator

*Exercises 7B.3*

**C. Truth Functions**

Defining the Five Logical Operators

Negation

Conjunction

Disjunction

Conditional

Biconditional

*Exercises 7C.1*

Operator Truth Tables and Ordinary Language

Propositions with Assigned Truth Values

*Exercises 7C.2*

**D. Truth Tables for Propositions**

Arranging the Truth Values

The Order of Operations

*Exercises 7D*

**E. Contingent and Noncontingent Statements**

Tautology

Self-Contradiction

*Exercises 7E*

**F. Logical Equivalence and Contradictory, Consistent, and Inconsistent Statements**

Logical Equivalence

*Exercises 7F.1*

Contradictory, Consistent, and Inconsistent Statements

*Exercises 7F.2*

**G. Truth Tables for Arguments**

Validity

Analyzing Sufficient and Necessary Conditions in Arguments

Technical Validity

*Exercises 7G.1*

Argument Forms

*Exercises 7G.2*

**H. Indirect Truth Tables**

Thinking Through an Argument

A Shorter Truth Table

*Exercises 7H.1*

Using Indirect Truth Tables to Examine Statements for Consistency

*Exercises 7H.2*

LOGIC CHALLENGE: A Card Problem

**Chapter 8. Natural Deduction**

**A. Natural Deduction**

**B. Implication Rules I**

*Modus Ponens*(MP)

*Modus Tollens*(MT)

Hypothetical Syllogism (HS)

Disjunctive Syllogism (DS)

Justification: Applying the Rules of Inference

*Exercises 8B*

**C. Tactics and Strategy**

Applying the First Four Implication Rules

*Exercises 8C*

**D. Implication Rules II**

Simplification (Simp)

Conjunction (Conj)

Addition (Add)

Constructive Dilemma (CD)

Applying the Second Four Implication Rules

*Exercises 8D*

**E. Replacement Rules I**

De Morgan (DM)

Double Negation (DN)

Commutation (Com)

Association (Assoc)

Distribution (Dist)

Applying the First Five Replacement Rules

*Exercises 8E*

**F. Replacement Rules II**

Transposition (Trans)

Material Implication (Impl)

Material Equivalence (Equiv)

Exportation (Exp)

Tautology (Taut)

Applying the Second Five Replacement Rules

*Exercises 8F*

**G. Conditional Proof**

*Exercises 8G*

**H. Indirect Proof**

*Exercises 8H*

**I. Proving Logical Truths**

*Exercises 8I*

LOGIC CHALLENGE: The Truth

**Chapter 9. Predicate Logic**

**A. Translating Ordinary Language**

Singular Statements

Universal Statements

Particular Statements

Paying Attention to Meaning

*Exercises 9A*

**B. Four New Rules of Inference**

Universal Instantiation (UI)

Universal Generalization (UG)

Existential Generalization (EG)

Existential Instantiation (EI)

Summary of the Four Rules

Tactics and Strategy

*Exercises 9B*

**C. Change of Quantifier (CQ)**

*Exercises 9C*

**D. Conditional and Indirect Proof**

Conditional Proof (CP)

Indirect Proof (IP)

*Exercises 9D*

**E. Demonstrating Invalidity**

Counterexample Method

Finite Universe Method

Indirect Truth Tables

*Exercises 9E*

**F. Relational Predicates**

Translations

*Exercises 9F.1*

Proofs

A New Restriction

Change of Quantifier

Conditional Proof and Indirect Proof

*Exercises 9F.2*

**G. Identity**

**Simple Identity Statements**

"Only"

"The Only"

"No . . . Except"

"All Except"

**Superlatives**

"At Most"

"At Least"

"Exactly"

Definite Descriptions

*Exercises 9G.1*

Proofs

*Exercises 9G.2*

LOGIC CHALLENGE: Your Name and Age, Please

**PART IV: INDUCTIVE LOGIC**

**Chapter 10. Analogical Arguments**

**A. The Framework of Analogical Arguments**

*Exercises 10A*

**B. Analyzing Analogical Arguments**

Criteria for Analyzing Analogical Arguments

*Exercises 10B*

**C. Strategies of Evaluation**

Disanalogies

Counteranalogy

Unintended Consequences

Combining Strategies

*Exercises 10C*

LOGIC CHALLENGE: Beat the Cheat

**Chapter 11. Legal Arguments**

**A. Deductive and Inductive Reasoning**

**B. Conditional Statements**

**C. Sufficient and Necessary Conditions**

**D. Disjunction and Conjunction**

**E. Analyzing a Complex Rule**

*Exercises 11E*

**F. Analogies**

**G. The Role of Precedent**

*Exercises 11G*

LOGIC CHALLENGE: A Guilty Problem

**Chapter 12. Moral Arguments**

**A. Value Judgments**

Justifying "Should"

Types of Value Judgments

Taste and Value

*Exercises 12A*

**B. Moral Theories**

Emotivism

Consequentialism

Egoism

Utilitarianism

Deontology

Relativism

Contrasting Moral Theories

*Exercises 12B*

**C. The Naturalistic Fallacy**

**D. The Structure of Moral Arguments**

**E. Analogies and Moral Arguments**

*Exercises 12E*

LOGIC CHALLENGE: Dangerous Cargo

**Chapter 13. Statistical Arguments and Probability**

**A. Samples and Populations**

*Exercises 13A*

**B. Statistical Averages**

*Exercises 13B*

**C. Standard Deviation**

Dividing the Curve

The Size of the Standard Deviation

How to Calculate the Standard Deviation

*Exercises 13C*

**D. What If the Results Are Skewed?**

**E. The Misuse of Statistics**

*Exercises 13E*

**F. Probability Theories**

*A Priori*Theory

Relative Frequency Theory

Subjectivist Theory

**G. Probability Calculus**

Conjunction Methods

Disjunction Methods

Negation Method

*Exercises 13G*

**H. True Odds in Games of Chance**

**I. Bayesian Theory**

*Exercises 13I*

LOGIC CHALLENGE: The Second Child

**Chapter 14. Causality and Scientific Arguments**

**A. Sufficient and Necessary Conditions**

*Exercises 14A*

**B. Causality**

**C. Mill's Methods**

Method of Agreement

Method of Difference

Joint Method of Agreement and Difference

Method of Residues

Method of Concomitant Variations

*Exercises 14C*

**D. Limitations of Mill's Methods**

**E. Theoretical and Experimental Science**

**F. Inference to the Best Explanation**

**G. Hypothesis Testing, Experiments, and Predictions**

Controlled Experiments

Determining Causality

**H. Science and Superstition**

The Need for a Fair Test

Verifiable Predictions

Nontrivial Predictions

Connecting the Hypothesis and Prediction

Science and Superstition

The Allure of Superstition

*Exercises 14H*

LOGIC CHALLENGE: The Scale and the Coins

**Online Chapter 15. Analyzing a Long Essay**

**A. Childbed Fever**

**B. Vienna**

*Exercises 15B*

**C. Miasm and Contagion**

*Exercises 15C*

**D. Semmelweis's Account of the Discovery**

*Exercises 15D*

**E. Initial Questions**

*Exercises 15E*

**F. A New Interpretation**

*Exercises 15F*

*** Appendix A. The LSAT and Logical Reasoning**

**1. Logical Reasoning**

**2. Deductive and Inductive Arguments**

**3. Identifying Conclusions and Premises**

A. Identifying the Conclusion

B. Choosing the Best Missing Conclusion

C. Assumptions: Choosing the Best Missing Premise

**4. Additional Information That**

*Strengthens***or**

*Weakens***an Argument**

**5. Arguments That Use Either Analogical, Statistical, or Causal Reasoning**

A. Analogical Reasoning

B. Statistical Reasoning

C. Causal Reasoning

**6. Explaining or Resolving Given Information**

**7. Argument Flaws**

A. Fallacies Based on Personal Attacks or Emotional Appeals

B. Weak Inductive Argument Fallacies

C. Fallacies of Unwarranted Assumption or Diversion

**8. Recognizing Reasoning Patterns**

A. Class Terms

B. Conditional Statements

C. Translating Conditional Statements

D. Distinguishing "If" from "Only If"

E. Conditionals and Arguments

F. Sufficient and Necessary Conditions

**9. Continuing the Process**

**Appendix B. The Truth About Philosophy Majors**

Careers

Salaries

Meaning

Resources

*Glossary*

*Answers to Selected Exercises*

*Index*