**Note:**Supplemental materials are not guaranteed with Rental or Used book purchases.

- ISBN: 9781119801191 | 1119801192
- Cover: Loose-leaf
- Copyright: 10/5/2021

**1 Measurement 1**

1.1 Measuring Things, Including Lengths 1

What is Physics? 1

Measuring Things 1

The International System of Units 2

Changing Units 3

Length 3

Significant Figures and Decimal Places 4

1.2 Time 5

Time 5

1.3 Mass 6

Mass 7

Review & Summary 8 Problems 8

**2 Motion Along a Straight Line 13**

2.1 Position, Displacement, and Average Velocity 13

What is Physics? 13

Motion 14

Position and Displacement 14

Average Velocity and Average Speed 15

2.2 Instantaneous Velocity and Speed 18

Instantaneous Velocity and Speed 18

2.3 Acceleration 20

Acceleration 20

2.4 Constant Acceleration 23

Constant Acceleration: A Special Case 23

Another Look at Constant Acceleration 27

2.5 Free-Fall Acceleration 28

Free-Fall Acceleration 28

2.6 Graphical Integration In Motion Analysis 30

Graphical Integration in Motion Analysis 30

Review & Summary 32 Questions 32 Problems 33

**3 Vectors 44**

3.1 Vectors and Their Components 44

What is Physics? 44

Vectors and Scalars 44

Adding Vectors Geometrically 45

Components of Vectors 46

3.2 Unit Vectors, Adding Vectors By Components 50

Unit Vectors 50

Adding Vectors by Components 50

Vectors and the Laws of Physics 51

3.3 Multiplying Vectors 52

Multiplying Vectors 53

Review & Summary 58 Questions 59 Problems 60

**4 Motion in Two and Three Dimensions 67**

4.1 Position and Displacement 67

What is Physics? 67

Position and Displacement 68

4.2 Average Velocity and Instantaneous Velocity 70

Average Velocity and Instantaneous Velocity 70

4.3 Average Acceleration and Instantaneous Acceleration 73

Average Acceleration and Instantaneous Acceleration 73

4.4 Projectile Motion 75

Projectile Motion 76

4.5 Uniform Circular Motion 82

Uniform Circular Motion 82

4.6 Relative Motion In One Dimension 84

Relative Motion in One Dimension 78

4.7 Relative Motion In Two Dimensions 86

Relative Motion in Two Dimensions 86

Review & Summary 88 Questions 89 Problems 90

**5 Force and Motion—I 101**

5.1 Newton’s First and Second Laws 101

What is Physics? 101

Newtonian Mechanics 102

Newton’s First Law 102

Force 103

Mass 104

Newton’s Second Law 105

5.2 Some Particular Forces 109

Some Particular Forces 109

5.3 Applying Newton’s Laws 113

Newton’s Third Law 113

Applying Newton’s Laws 115

Review & Summary 121 Questions 122 Problems 124

**6 Force and Motion—II 132**

6.1 Friction 132

What is Physics? 132

Friction 132

Properties of Friction 135

6.2 The Drag Force and Terminal Speed 138

The Drag Force and Terminal Speed 138

6.3 Uniform Circular Motion 140

Uniform Circular Motion 141

Review & Summary 145 Questions 145 Problems 146

**7 Kinetic Energy and Work 156**

7.1 Kinetic Energy 156

What is Physics? 156

What is Energy? 156

Kinetic Energy 157

7.2 Work and Kinetic Energy 158

Work 158

Work and Kinetic Energy 159

7.3 Work Done By The Gravitational Force 163

Work Done by the Gravitational Force 163

7.4 Work Done By A Spring Force 167

Work Done by a Spring Force 167

7.5 Work Done By A General Variable Force 170

Work Done by a General Variable Force 171

7.6 Power 174

Power 174

Review & Summary 176 Questions 177 Problems 179

**8 Potential Energy and Conservation of Energy 186**

8.1 Potential Energy 186

What is Physics? 187

Work and Potential Energy 187

Path Independence of Conservative Forces 188

Determining Potential Energy Values 190

8.2 Conservation of Mechanical Energy 193

Conservation of Mechanical Energy 193

8.3 Reading A Potential Energy Curve 196

Reading a Potential Energy Curve 197

8.4 Work Done On A System By An External Force 201

Work Done on a System by an External Force 201

8.5 Conservation of Energy 205

Conservation of Energy 205

Review & Summary 209 Questions 210

Problems 212

**9 Center of Mass and Linear Momentum 225**

9.1 Center of Mass 225

What is Physics? 225

The Center of Mass 226

9.2 Newton’s Second Law For A System of Particles 229

Newton’s Second Law for a System of Particles 230

9.3 Linear Momentum 234

Linear Momentum 234

The Linear Momentum of a System of Particles 235

9.4 Collision and Impulse 236

Collision and Impulse 236

9.5 Conservation of Linear Momentum 240

Conservation of Linear Momentum 240

9.6 Momentum and Kinetic Energy In Collisions 243

Momentum and Kinetic Energy in Collisions 243

Inelastic Collisions in One Dimension 244

9.7 Elastic Collisions In One Dimension 247

Elastic Collisions in One Dimension 247

9.8 Collisions In Two Dimensions 251

Collisions in Two Dimensions 251

9.9 Systems With Varying Mass: A Rocket 252

Systems with Varying Mass: A Rocket 252

Review & Summary 254 Questions 256 Problems 257

**10 Rotation 270**

10.1 Rotational Variables 270

What is Physics? 271

Rotational Variables 272

Are Angular Quantities Vectors? 277

10.2 Rotation With Constant Angular Acceleration 279

Rotation with Constant Angular Acceleration 279

10.3 Relating The Linear and Angular Variables 281

Relating the Linear and Angular Variables 281

10.4 Kinetic Energy of Rotation 285

Kinetic Energy of Rotation 285

10.5 Calculating The Rotational Inertia 286

Calculating the Rotational Inertia 287

10.6 Torque 291

Torque 291

10.7 Newton’s Second Law For Rotation 292

Newton’s Second Law for Rotation 293

10.8 Work and Rotational Kinetic Energy 296

Work and Rotational Kinetic Energy 297

Review & Summary 299 Questions 300

Problems 301

**11 Rolling, Torque, and Angular Momentum 310**

11.1 Rolling As Translation and Rotation Combined 310

What is Physics? 310

Rolling as Translation and Rotation Combined 310

11.2 Forces and Kinetic Energy of Rolling 313

The Kinetic Energy of Rolling 313

The Forces of Rolling 314

11.3 The Yo-Yo 316

The Yo-Yo 317

11.4 Torque Revisited 317

Torque Revisited 318

11.5 Angular Momentum 320

Angular Momentum 320

11.6 Newton’s Second Law In Angular Form 322

Newton’s Second Law in Angular Form 322

11.7 Angular Momentum of A Rigid Body 325

The Angular Momentum of a System of Particles 325

The Angular Momentum of a Rigid Body Rotating About a Fixed Axis 326

11.8 Conservation of Angular Momentum 328

Conservation of Angular Momentum 328

11.9 Precession of A Gyroscope 333

Precession of a Gyroscope 333

Review & Summary 334 Questions 335 Problems 336

**12 Equilibrium and Elasticity 344**

12.1 Equilibrium 344

What is Physics? 344

Equilibrium 344

The Requirements of Equilibrium 346

The Center of Gravity 347

12.2 Some Examples of Static Equilibrium 349

Some Examples of Static Equilibrium 349

12.3 Elasticity 355

Indeterminate Structures 355

Elasticity 356

Review & Summary 360 Questions 360

Problems 362

**13 Gravitation 372**

13.1 Newton’s Law of Gravitation 372

What is Physics? 372

Newton’s Law of Gravitation 373

13.2 Gravitation and The Principle of Superposition 375

Gravitation and the Principle of Superposition 375

13.3 Gravitation Near Earth’s Surface 377

Gravitation Near Earth’s Surface 378

13.4 Gravitation Inside Earth 381

Gravitation Inside Earth 381

13.5 Gravitational Potential Energy 383

Gravitational Potential Energy 383

13.6 Planets and Satellites: Kepler’s Laws 387

Planets and Satellites: Kepler’s Laws 388

13.7 Satellites: Orbits and Energy 390

Satellites: Orbits and Energy 391

13.8 Einstein and Gravitation 393

Einstein and Gravitation 393

Review & Summary 396 Questions 397

Problems 399

**14 Fluids 406**

14.1 Fluids, Density, and Pressure 406

What is Physics? 406

What is a Fluid? 406

Density and Pressure 407

14.2 Fluids At Rest 409

Fluids at Rest 409

14.3 Measuring Pressure 412

Measuring Pressure 412

14.4 Pascal’s Principle 413

Pascal’s Principle 413

14.5 Archimedes’ Principle 415

Archimedes’ Principle 415

14.6 The Equation of Continuity 419

Ideal Fluids in Motion 420

The Equation of Continuity 421

14.7 Bernoulli’s Equation 423

Bernoulli’s Equation 424

Review & Summary 426 Questions 427

Problems 428

**15 Oscillations 436**

15.1 Simple Harmonic Motion 436

What is Physics? 437

Simple Harmonic Motion 437

The Force Law for Simple Harmonic Motion 442

15.2 Energy In Simple Harmonic Motion 444

Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion 444

15.3 An Angular Simple Harmonic Oscillator 446

An Angular Simple Harmonic Oscillator 446

15.4 Pendulums, Circular Motion 448

Pendulums 448

Simple Harmonic Motion and Uniform Circular Motion 451

15.5 Damped Simple Harmonic Motion 453

Damped Simple Harmonic Motion 453

15.6 Forced Oscillations and Resonance 456

Forced Oscillations and Resonance 456

Review & Summary 457 Questions 458

Problems 459

**16 Waves—I 468**

16.1 Transverse Waves 468

What is Physics? 469

Types of Waves 469

Transverse and Longitudinal Waves 469

Wavelength and Frequency 470

The Speed of a Traveling Wave 473

16.2 Wave Speed On A Stretched String 476

Wave Speed on a Stretched String 476

16.3 Energy and Power of A Wave Traveling Along A String 478

Energy and Power of a Wave Traveling Along a String 478

16.4 The Wave Equation 480

The Wave Equation 480

16.5 Interference of Waves 482

The Principle of Superposition for Waves 483

Interference of Waves 483

16.6 Phasors 487

Phasors 487

16.7 Standing Waves and Resonance 490

Standing Waves 491

Standing Waves and Resonance 493

Review & Summary 495 Questions 496

Problems 497

**17 Waves—II 505**

17.1 Speed of Sound 505

What is Physics? 505

Sound Waves 505

The Speed of Sound 506

17.2 Traveling Sound Waves 508

Traveling Sound Waves 509

17.3 Interference 511

Interference 511

17.4 Intensity and Sound Level 515

Intensity and Sound Level 515

17.5 Sources of Musical Sound 518

Sources of Musical Sound 518

17.6 Beats 522

Beats 522

17.7 The Doppler Effect 524

The Doppler Effect 525

17.8 Supersonic Speeds, Shock Waves 529

Supersonic Speeds, Shock Waves 529

Review & Summary 530 Questions 531

Problems 532

**18 Temperature, Heat, and the First Law of Thermodynamics 541**

18.1 Temperature 541

What is Physics? 541

Temperature 542

The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics 542

Measuring Temperature 543

18.2 The Celsius and Fahrenheit Scales 545

The Celsius and Fahrenheit Scales 546

18.3 Thermal Expansion 547

Thermal Expansion 548

18.4 Absorption of Heat 550

Temperature and Heat 551

The Absorption of Heat by Solids and Liquids 552

18.5 The First Law of Thermodynamics 556

A Closer Look at Heat and Work 557

The First Law of Thermodynamics 559

Some Special Cases of the First Law of Thermodynamics 560

18.6 Heat Transfer Mechanisms 562

Heat Transfer Mechanisms 563

Review & Summary 567 Questions 569 Problems 570

**19 The Kinetic Theory of Gases 578**

19.1 Avogadro’s Number 578

What is Physics? 578

Avogadro’s Number 579

19.2 Ideal Gases 579

Ideal Gases 580

19.3 Pressure, Temperature, and Rms Speed 583

Pressure, Temperature, and RMS Speed 583

19.4 Translational Kinetic Energy 586

Translational Kinetic Energy 586

19.5 Mean Free Path 587

Mean Free Path 587

19.6 The Distribution of Molecular Speeds 589

The Distribution of Molecular Speeds 590

19.7 The Molar Specific Heats of An Ideal Gas 593

The Molar Specific Heats of an Ideal Gas 593

19.8 Degrees of Freedom and Molar Specific Heats 597

Degrees of Freedom and Molar Specific Heats 597

A Hint of Quantum Theory 600

19.9 The Adiabatic Expansion of An Ideal Gas 600

The Adiabatic Expansion of an Ideal Gas 601

Review & Summary 605 Questions 606 Problems 606

**20 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics 613**

20.1 Entropy 613

What is Physics? 614

Irreversible Processes and Entropy 614

Change in Entropy 615

The Second Law of Thermodynamics 619

20.2 Entropy In The Real World: Engines 620

Entropy in the Real World: Engines 621

20.3 Refrigerators and Real Engines 626

Entropy in the Real World: Refrigerators 627

The Efficiencies of Real Engines 628

20.4 A Statistical View of Entropy 629

A Statistical View of Entropy 629

Review & Summary 633 Questions 634 Problems 635

Appendices

A The International System of Units (SI) A-1

B Some Fundamental Constants of Physics A-3

C Some Astronomical Data A-4

D Conversion Factors A-5

E Mathematical Formulas A-9

F Properties of The Elements A-12

G Periodic Table of The Elements A-15

**Answers**

To Checkpoints and Odd-Numbered Questions and Problems AN-1

Index I-1

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