# How Things Work, Loose-Leaf

, by Bloomfield, Louis A.**Note:**Supplemental materials are not guaranteed with Rental or Used book purchases.

- ISBN: 9781119013846 | 1119013844
- Cover: Loose-leaf
- Copyright: 12/15/2015

** How Things Work** provides an accessible introduction to physics for the non-science student. Like the previous editions it employs everyday objects, with which students are familiar, in case studies to explain the most essential physics concepts of day-to-day life. Lou Bloomfield takes seemingly highly complex devices and strips away the complexity to show how at their heart are simple physics ideas. Once these concepts are understood, they can be used to understand the behavior of many devices encountered in everyday life. The sixth edition uses the power of WileyPLUS Learning Space with Orion to give students the opportunity to actively practice the physics concepts presented in this edition. This text is an unbound, three hole punched version. Access to WileyPLUS sold separately.

**Chapter 1 The Laws of Motion, Part 1 1**

Active Learning Experiment: Removing a Tablecloth from a Table 1

Chapter Itinerary 2

1.1 Skating 2

(inertia, coasting, vector quantities, position, velocity, force, acceleration, mass, net force, Newton’s first and second laws, inertial frames of reference, units)

1.2 Falling Balls 12

(gravity, weight, constant acceleration, projectile motion, vector components)

1.3 Ramps 21

(support forces, Newton’s third law, energy, work, conservation of energy, kinetic and potential energies, gravitational potential energy, ramps, mechanical advantage)

Epilogue for Chapter 1 31 / Explanation: Removing a Tablecloth from a Table 31 / Chapter Summary and Important Laws and Equations 31

**Chapter 2 The Laws of Motion, Part 2 33**

Active Learning Experiment: A Spinning Pie Dish 33

Chapter Itinerary 34

2.1 Seesaws 34

(rotational inertia; angular velocity; torque; angular acceleration; rotational mass; net torque; Newton’s first, second, and third laws of rotation; centers of mass and gravity; levers; balance)

2.2 Wheels 48

(friction, traction, ordered and thermal energies, wheels, bearings, kinetic energy, power, rotational work)

2.3 Bumper Cars 59

(momentum, impulse, conservation of momentum, angular momentum, angular impulse, conservation of angular momentum, gradients, potential energy, acceleration, and forces)

Epilogue for Chapter 2 70 / Explanation: A Spinning Pie Dish 70 / Chapter Summary and Important Laws and Equations 70

**Chapter 3 Mechanical Objects Part 1 72**

Active Learning Experiment: Swinging Water Overhead 72

Chapter Itinerary 73

3.1 Spring Scales 73

(equilibrium, stable equilibrium, restoring force, Hooke’s law, elastic potential energy, oscillation, calibration)

3.2 Ball Sports: Bouncing 79

(collisions, energy transfers, elastic and inelastic collisions, vibration)

3.3 Carousels and Roller Coasters 86

(uniform circular motion, feeling of acceleration, apparent weight, centripetal acceleration)

Epilogue for Chapter 3 94 / Explanation: Swinging Water Overhead 94 / Chapter Summary and Important Laws and Equations 95

**Chapter 4 Mechanical Objects Part 2 96**

Active Learning Experiment: High-Flying Balls 96

Chapter Itinerary 97

4.1 Bicycles 97

(stable, neutral, and unstable equilibriums; static and dynamic stability; precession)

4.2 Rockets and Space Travel 104

(reaction forces, law of universal gravitation, elliptical orbits, escape velocity, Kepler’s laws, speed of light, special and general relativity, equivalence principle)

Epilogue for Chapter 4 117 / Explanation: High-Flying Balls 117 / Chapter Summary and Important Laws and Equations 117

**Chapter 5 Fluids 119**

Active Learning Experiment: A Cartesian Diver 119

Chapter Itinerary 120

5.1 Balloons 120

(pressure, density, temperature, thermal motion, absolute zero, Archimedes’ principle, buoyant force, ideal gas law)

5.2 Water Distribution 131

(hydrostatics, Pascal’s principle, hydraulics, hydrodynamics, steady state flow, streamlines, pressure potential energy, Bernoulli’s equation)

Epilogue for Chapter 5 140 / Explanation: A Cartesian Diver 140 / Chapter Summary and Important Laws and Equations 141

**Chapter 6 Fluids and Motion 142**

Active Learning Experiment: A Vortex Cannon 142

Chapter Itinerary 143

6.1 Garden Watering 143

(viscous forces, Poiseuille’s law, laminar and turbulent flows, speed and pressure in a fluid, Reynolds number, chaos, momentum in a fluid)

6.2 Ball Sports: Air 153

(aerodynamics, aerodynamic lift and drag, viscous drag, pressure drag, boundary layers, stalls, Magnus and wake deflection forces)

6.3 Airplanes 161

(airfoils, streamlining, lifting wings, angle of attack, induced drag, stalled wings, thrust)

Epilogue for Chapter 6 171 / Explanation: A Vortex Cannon 171 / Chapter Summary and Important Laws and Equations 171

**Chapter 7 Heat and Phase Transitions 173**

Active Learning Experiment: A Ruler Thermometer 173

Chapter Itinerary 174

7.1 Woodstoves 174

(thermal energy, heat, temperature, thermal equilibrium, chemical bonds and reactions, conduction, thermal conductivity, convection, radiation, heat capacity)

7.2 Water, Steam, and Ice 184

(phases of matter, phase transitions, melting, freezing, condensation, evaporation, relative humidity, latent heats of melting and evaporation, sublimation, deposition, boiling, nucleation, superheating)

7.3 Clothing, Insulation, and Climate 192

(thermal conductivity, electromagnetic spectrum, light, blackbody spectrum, emissivity, Stefan-Boltzmann law, thermal expansion, greenhouse effect)

Epilogue for Chapter 7 205 / Explanation: A Ruler Thermometer 206 / Chapter Summary and Important Laws and Equations 206

**Chapter 8 Thermodynamics 208**

Active Learning Experiment: Making Fog in a Bottle 208

Chapter Itinerary 209

8.1 Air Conditioners 209

(laws of thermodynamics, temperature, heat, entropy, heat pumps and thermodynamic efficiency)

8.2 Automobiles 219

(heat engines and thermodynamic efficiency)

Epilogue for Chapter 8 228 / Explanation: Making Fog in a Bottle 228 / Chapter Summary and Important Laws and Equations 228

**Chapter 9 Resonance and Mechanical Waves 230**

Active Learning Experiment: A Singing Wineglass 230

Chapter Itinerary 231

9.1 Clocks 231

(time and space, natural resonance, harmonic oscillators, simple harmonic motion, frequency, period, amplitude)

9.2 Musical Instruments 241

(sound; music; vibrations in strings, air, and surfaces; fundamental and higher-order modes; harmonic and nonharmonic overtones; sympathetic vibration; standing and traveling waves; transverse and longitudinal waves; velocity and wavelength in mechanical waves; superposition; Doppler effect)

9.3 The Sea 254

(tidal forces; surface waves; dispersion, refraction, reflection, and interference in mechanical waves)

Epilogue for Chapter 9 263 / Explanation: A Singing Wineglass 263 / Chapter Summary and Important Laws and Equations 264

**Chapter 10 Electricity 266**

Active Learning Experiment: Moving Water without Touching It 266

Chapter Itinerary 267

10.1 Static Electricity 267

(electric charge, electrostatic forces, Coulomb’s law, electrostatic potential energy, voltage, charging by contact, electric polarization, electrical conductors and insulators)

10.2 Xerographic Copiers 276

(electric fields and voltage gradients, electric fields inside and outside conductors, discharges, charging by induction, capacitors)

10.3 Flashlights 287

(electric current; electric circuits; direction of current flow; electrical resistance; voltage drops; voltage rises; relationship among current, voltage, and power; Ohm’s law; resistors; series and parallel circuits)

Epilogue for Chapter 10 299 / Explanation: Moving Water without Touching It 300 / Chapter Summary and Important Laws and Equations 301

**Chapter 11 Magnetism and Electrodynamics 302**

Active Learning Experiment: A Nail and Wire Electromagnet 302

Chapter Itinerary 303

11.1 Household Magnets 303

(magnetic pole, magnetostatic forces, Coulomb’s law for magnetism, ferromagnetism, magnetic polarization, magnetic domains, magnetic materials, magnetic fields, magnetic flux lines, relationship between currents and magnetic fields)

11.2 Electric Power Distribution 313

(direct and alternating currents, superconductivity, transformers, induction, magnetic field energy, relationship between changing magnetic fields and electric fields, Lenz’s law, inductors, induced emf, electrical safety, generators, motors)

Epilogue for Chapter 11 329 / Explanation: A Nail and Wire Electromagnet 330 / Chapter Summary and Important Laws and Equations 330

**Chapter 12 Electromagnetic Waves 332**

Active Learning Experiment: A Disc in the Microwave Oven 332

Chapter Itinerary 333

12.1 Radio 333

(relationship between changing electric fields and magnetic fields, electric field energy, tank circuits, antennas, electromagnetic waves, speed of light, wave polarization, amplitude modulation, frequency modulation, bandwidth)

12.2 Microwave Ovens 343

(speed, frequency, and wavelength in electromagnetic waves; polar and nonpolar molecules; Lorentz force; cyclotron motion)

Epilogue for Chapter 12 351 / Explanation: A Disc in the Microwave Oven 351 / Chapter Summary and Important Laws and Equations 351

**Chapter 13 Light 353**

Active Learning Experiment: Splitting the Colors of Sunlight 353

Chapter Itinerary 354

13.1 Sunlight 354

(light, Rayleigh scattering, index of refraction, impedance, refraction, reflection, dispersion, and interference in electromagnetic waves, polarized reflection)

13.2 Discharge Lamps 363

(color vision, primary colors of light and pigment, illumination, gas discharges, quantum physics, wave-particle duality, atomic orbitals, Pauli exclusion principle, atomic structure, periodic chart, radiative transitions, Planck’s constant, atomic fluorescence, radiation trapping)

13.3 LEDs and Lasers 377

(levels in solids; band structure; Fermi level; metals, insulators, and semiconductors; photoconductors; p-n junction; diodes; light-emitting diodes; incoherent and coherent light; spontaneous and stimulated emission; population inversion; laser amplification and oscillation; laser safety)

Epilogue for Chapter 13 390 / Explanation: Splitting the Colors of Sunlight 390 / Chapter Summary and Important Laws and Equations 391

**Chapter 14 Optics and Electronics 392**

Active Learning Experiment: Magnifying Glass Camera 392

Chapter Itinerary 393

14.1 Cameras 393

(refracting optics, converging lenses, real images, focus, focal lengths, f-numbers, the lens equation, diverging lenses, virtual images, light sensors, vision and vision correction)

14.2 Optical Recording and Communication 403

(analog vs. digital representations, decimal and binary representations, diffraction, diffraction limit, plane and circular polarization, total internal reflection)

14.3 Audio Players 413

(transistors, MOSFETs, bits and bytes, logic elements, amplifiers, feedback)

Epilogue for Chapter 14 422 / Explanation: Magnifying Glass Camera 422 / Chapter Summary and Important Laws and Equations 423

**Chapter 15 Modern Physics 425**

Active Learning Experiment: Radiation-Damaged Paper 425

Chapter Itinerary 425

15.1 Nuclear Weapons 426

(nuclear structure, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, quantum tunneling, radioactivity, half-life, fission, chain reaction, isotopes, alpha decay, fusion, transmutation of elements, radioactive fallout)

15.2 Nuclear Reactors 438

(controlling nuclear fission, delayed neutrons, thermal fission reactors, moderators, boiling water and pressurized water reactors, fast fission reactors, nuclear reactor safety and accidents, inertial confinement and magnetic confinement fusion)

15.3 Medical Imaging and Radiation 448

(X-rays, X-ray fluorescence, Bremsstrahlung, photoelectric effect, Compton scattering, antimatter, gamma rays, beta decay, fundamental forces, particle accelerators, magnetic resonance)

Epilogue for Chapter 15 458 / Explanation: Radiation-Damaged Paper 458 / Chapter Summary and Important Laws and Equations 459

**Appendices 460**

A Vectors 460

B Units, Conversion of Units 462

Glossary 465

Index 481

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