# Logic An Emphasis on Formal Logic

, by Baronett, Stan**Note:**Supplemental materials are not guaranteed with Rental or Used book purchases.

- ISBN: 9780197602409 | 0197602401
- Cover: Paperback
- Copyright: 11/30/2021

Featuring an exceptionally clear writing style and a wealth of real-world examples and exercises,

*Logic: An Emphasis on Formal Logic*, Fifth Edition (Chapters 1, 4-9) shows how logic relates to everyday life, demonstrating its applications in such areas as the workplace, media and entertainment, politics, science and technology, student life, and elsewhere. The examples and exercises were chosen to be interesting, thought-provoking, and relevant to students.**Stan Baronett**is a master teacher and the author of several books, including

*Why Did the Logician Cross the Road?: Finding Humor in Logical Reasoning*(2021) and

*Journey Into Philosophy: An Introduction with Classic and Contemporary Readings*(2016).

Preface

**Part I: Setting the Stage**

Chapter 1: What Logic Studies

A. Statements and Arguments

B. Recognizing Arguments

Exercises 1B

C. Arguments and Explanations

Exercises 1C

D. Truth and Logic

E. Deductive and Inductive Arguments

Exercises 1E

F. Deductive Arguments: Validity and Soundness

Argument Form

Counterexamples

Summary of Deductive Arguments

Exercises 1F

G. Inductive Arguments: Strength and Cogency

Techniques of Analysis

The Role of New Information

Summary of Inductive Arguments

Exercises 1G

H. Reconstructing Arguments

Exercises 1H

Summary

Key Terms

Logic Challenge: The Problem of the Hats

**Part II: Informal Logic**

Chapter 4: Informal Fallacies

A. Why Study Fallacies?

B. Fallacies Based on Personal Attacks or Emotional Appeals

Fallacies Based on Personal Attacks

1. Ad Hominem Abusive

2. Ad Hominem Circumstantial

3. Poisoning the Well

4. Tu Quoque

Fallacies Based on Emotional Appeals

5. Appeal to the People

6. Appeal to Pity

7. Appeal to Fear or Force

Summary of Fallacies Based on Personal Attacks

Summary of Fallacies Based on Emotional Appeals

Exercises 4B

C. Weak Inductive Argument Fallacies

Generalization Fallacies

8. Rigid Application of a Generalization

9. Hasty Generalization

10. Composition

11. Division

12. Biased Sample

False Cause Fallacies

13. Post Hoc

14. Slippery Slope

Summary of Weak Inductive Argument Fallacies

Exercises 4C

D. Fallacies of Unwarranted Assumption or Diversion

Unwarranted Assumption

15. Begging the Question

16. Complex Question

17. Appeal to Ignorance

18. Appeal to an Unqualified Authority

19. False Dichotomy

Fallacies of Diversion

20. Equivocation

21. Straw Man

22. Red Herring

23. Misleading Precision

24. Missing the Point

Summary of Fallacies of Unwarranted Assumption and Diversion

Exercises 4D

E. Recognizing Fallacies in Ordinary Language

Exercises 4E

Summary

Key Terms

Logic Challenge: A Clever Problem

**Part III: Formal Logic**

Chapter 5: Categorical Propositions

A. Categorical Propositions

Exercises 5A

B. Quantity, Quality, and Distribution

Exercises 5B

C. Existential Import

D. The Modern Square of Opposition and Venn Diagrams

Venn Diagrams

Exercises 5D

E. Conversion, Obversion, and Contraposition in the Modern Square

Conversion

Obversion

Contraposition

Diagrams

Summary of Conversion, Obversion, and Contraposition

Exercises 5E

F. The Traditional Square of Opposition and Venn Diagrams

Exercises 5F.1

Venn Diagrams and the Traditional Square

Exercises 5F.2

G. Conversion, Obversion, and Contraposition in the Traditional Square

Summary of Conversion, Obversion, and Contraposition

Conversion

Obversion

Contraposition

Exercises 5G

H. Translating Ordinary Language into Categorical Propositions

Missing Plural Nouns

Nonstandard Verbs

Singular Propositions

Adverbs and Pronouns

"It Is False That . . ."

Implied Quantifiers

Nonstandard Quantifiers

Conditional Statements

Exclusive Propositions

"The Only"

Propositions Requiring Two Translations

Exercises 5H

Summary

Key Terms

Logic Challenge: Group Relationship

**Chapter 6: Categorical Syllogisms**

A. Standard-Form Categorical Syllogisms

B. Mood and Figure

Exercises 6B

C. Diagramming in the Modern Interpretation

Diagramming A-Propositions

Diagramming E-Propositions

Diagramming I-Propositions

Diagramming O-Propositions

Wrapping Up the X

Is the Syllogism Valid?

Exercises 6C

D. Rules and Fallacies Under the Modern Interpretation

Rule 1: The middle term must be distributed in at least one premise.

Associated Fallacy: Undistributed Middle

Rule 2: If a term is distributed in the conclusion, then it must be distributed in a premise.

Associated Fallacies: Illicit Major/Illicit Minor

Rule 3: A categorical syllogism cannot have two negative premises.

Associated Fallacy: Exclusive Premises

Rule 4: A negative premise must have a negative conclusion.

Associated Fallacy: Affirmative Conclusion/Negative Premise

Rule 5: A negative conclusion must have a negative premise.

Associated Fallacy: Negative Conclusion/Affirmative Premises

Rule 6: Two universal premises cannot have a particular conclusion.

Associated Fallacy: Existential Fallacy

Summary of Rules

Exercises 6D

E. Diagramming in the Traditional Interpretation

A-Propositions

E-Propositions

Exercises 6E

F. Rules and Fallacies Under the Traditional Interpretation

Exercises 6F

G. Ordinary Language Arguments

Reducing the Number of Terms in an Argument

Exercises 6G.1

Paraphrasing Ordinary Language Arguments

Categorical Propositions and Multiple Arguments

Exercises 6G.2

H. Enthymemes

Exercises 6H

I. Sorites

Exercises 6I

Summary

Key Terms

Logic Challenge: Relationships Revisited

**Chapter 7: Propositional Logic**

A. Logical Operators and Translations

Simple and Compound Statements

Negation

Conjunction

Disjunction

Conditional

Distinguishing "If" from "Only If"

Sufficient and Necessary Conditions

Biconditional

Summary of Operators and Ordinary Language

Exercises 7A

B. Compound Statements

Well-Formed Formulas

Exercises 7B.1

Main Operator

Exercises 7B.2

Translations and the Main Operator

Exercises 7B.3

C. Truth Functions

Defining the Five Logical Operators

Negation

Conjunction

Disjunction

Conditional

Biconditional

Exercises 7C.1

Operator Truth Tables and Ordinary Language

Propositions with Assigned Truth Values

Exercises 7C.2

D. Truth Tables for Propositions

Arranging the Truth Values

The Order of Operations

Exercises 7D

E. Contingent and Noncontingent Statements

Tautology

Self-Contradiction

Exercises 7E

F. Logical Equivalence and Contradictory, Consistent, and Inconsistent Statements

Logical Equivalence

Exercises 7F.1

Contradictory, Consistent, and Inconsistent Statements

Exercises 7F.2

G. Truth Tables for Arguments

Validity

Analyzing Sufficient and Necessary Conditions in Arguments

Technical Validity

Exercises 7G.1

Argument Forms

Exercises 7G.2

H. Indirect Truth Tables

Thinking Through an Argument

A Shorter Truth Table

Exercises 7H.1

Using Indirect Truth Tables to Examine Statements for Consistency

Exercises 7H.2

Summary

Key Terms

Logic Challenge: A Card Problem

**Chapter 8: Natural Deduction**

A. Natural Deduction

B. Implication Rules I

Modus Ponens (MP)

Modus Tollens (MT)

Hypothetical Syllogism (HS)

Disjunctive Syllogism (DS)

Justification: Applying the Rules of Inference

Exercises 8B

C. Tactics and Strategy

Applying the First Four Implication Rules

Exercises 8C

D. Implication Rules II

Simplification (Simp)

Conjunction (Conj)

Addition (Add)

Constructive Dilemma (CD)

Applying the Second Four Implication Rules

Exercises 8D

E. Replacement Rules I

De Morgan (DM)

Double Negation (DN)

Commutation (Com)

Association (Assoc)

Distribution (Dist)

Applying the First Five Replacement Rules

Exercises 8E

F. Replacement Rules II

Transposition (Trans)

Material Implication (Impl)

Material Equivalence (Equiv)

Exportation (Exp)

Tautology (Taut)

Applying the Second Five Replacement Rules

Exercises 8F

G. Conditional Proof

Exercises 8G

H. Indirect Proof

Exercises 8H

I. Proving Logical Truths

Exercises 8I

Summary

Key Terms

Logic Challenge: The Truth

**Chapter 9: Predicate Logic**

A. Translating Ordinary Language

Singular Statements

Universal Statements

Particular Statements

Summary of Predicate Logic Symbols

Paying Attention to Meaning

Exercises 9A

B. Four New Rules of Inference

Universal Instantiation (UI)

Universal Generalization (UG)

Existential Generalization (EG)

Existential Instantiation (EI)

Summary of the Four Rules

Tactics and Strategy

Exercises 9B

C. Change of Quantifier (CQ)

Exercises 9C

D. Conditional and Indirect Proof

Conditional Proof (CP)

Indirect Proof (IP)

Exercises 9D

E. Demonstrating Invalidity

Counterexample Method

Finite Universe Method

Indirect Truth Tables

Exercises 9E

F. Relational Predicates

Translations

Exercises 9F.1

Proofs

A New Restriction

Change of Quantifier

Conditional Proof and Indirect Proof

Exercises 9F.2

G. Identity

Simple Identity Statements

"Only"

"The Only"

"No . . . Except"

"All Except"

Superlatives

"At Most"

"At Least"

"Exactly"

Definite Descriptions

Summary of Identity Translations

Exercises 9G.1

Proofs

Exercises 9G.2

Summary

Key Terms

Logic Challenge: Your Name and Age, Please

Chapter 15, located on the companion website.

Online Chapter 15: Analyzing a Long Essay

A. Childbed Fever

B. Vienna

Exercises 15B

C. Miasm and Contagion

Exercises 15C

D. Semmelweis's Account of the Discovery

Exercises 15D

E. Initial Questions

Exercises 15E

F. A New Interpretation

Exercises 15F

Summary

Bibliography

Appendix A: Cognitive Bias

A. Introduction

B. Heuristics

C. Heuristics and Algorithms

D. The Link Between Heuristics and Cognitive Biases

E. Theories of Judgment

F. Cognitive Biases

1. Belief bias

2. Confirmation bias

3. Status quo bias

4. Availability bias

5. Halo bias

6. Functional fixedness bias

7. Anchoring bias

8. Gambling biases

9. Frequency bias

10. Ingroup bias

11. Fundamental attribution bias

G. Can We Overcome Cognitive Biases?

Appendix B: The LSAT and Logical Reasoning

Introduction

1. Logical Reasoning

2. Deductive and Inductive Arguments

3. Identifying Conclusions and Premises

A. Identifying the Conclusion

B. Choosing the Best Missing Conclusion

C. Assumptions: Choosing the Best Missing Premise

4. Additional Information That Strengthens or Weakens an Argument

5. Arguments That Use Either Analogical, Statistical, or Causal Reasoning

A. Analogical Reasoning

B. Statistical Reasoning

C. Causal Reasoning

6. Explaining or Resolving Given Information

7. Argument Flaws

A. Fallacies Based on Personal Attacks or Emotional Appeals

B. Weak Inductive Argument Fallacies

C. Fallacies of Unwarranted Assumption or Diversion

8. Recognizing Reasoning Patterns

A. Class Terms

B. Conditional Statements

C. Translating Conditional Statements

D. Distinguishing "If" from "Only If"

E. Conditionals and Arguments

F. Sufficient and Necessary Conditions

9. Continuing the Process

Glossary

Answers to Selected Exercises

Index

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