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- ISBN: 9780134606545 | 013460654X
- Cover: Hardcover
- Copyright: 7/20/2018

*For upper-level undergraduate and graduate level engineering courses in Mechanical Behavior of Materials.*

**Predicting the mechanical behavior of materials **

** Mechanical Behavior of Materials,**

**5th Edition**introduces the spectrum of mechanical behavior of materials and covers the topics of deformation, fracture, and fatigue. The text emphasizes practical engineering methods for testing structural materials to obtain their properties, predicting their strength and life, and avoiding structural failure when used for machines, vehicles, and structures. With its logical treatment and ready-to-use format, the text is ideal for upper-level undergraduate students who have completed an elementary mechanics of materials course. The 5th Edition features many improvements and updates throughout including new or revised problems and questions, and a new chapter on Environmentally Assisted Cracking.

**Norman E. Dowling** earned his B.S. in civil engineering (structures) from Clemson University in Clemson, S.C., and his M.S. and Ph.D. in theoretical and applied mechanics from the University of Illinois in Urbana. He is a registered Professional Engineer. From 1972 to 1982, he was employed at Westinghouse Research Laboratories, Pittsburgh, PA. Since 1983, he has been at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. In 2015, Prof. Dowling retired from full employment and remains professionally active as Professor Emeritus. An ASTM International member since 1972, Dowling has served on a number of subcommittees and other activities of Committee E08 on Fatigue and Fracture. He has also been active in the Fatigue Design and Evaluation Committee of SAE International.

**Stephen L. Kampe** received B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in Metallurgical Engineering from Michigan Technological University. He has held positions with Martin Marietta Corporation, and with Virginia Tech on the Materials Science and Engineering faculty. In 2008, he returned to Michigan Tech and is currently the St. John Professor and Chair of the Materials Science and Engineering Department. He is a member of TMS and ASEE, and a Fellow of ASM and Alpha Sigma Mu.

**Milo V. Kral** earned his B.E. in mechanical engineering, and his M.S. and Ph.D. in Materials Science & Engineering from Vanderbilt University. After an ASEE post-doctoral fellowship in 1996-1998 at the US Naval Research Laboratory in Washington DC, Kral joined the engineering faculty at University of Canterbury in Christchurch New Zealand. He is a member of TMS, ASM, a fellow of Professional Engineers NZ and Alpha Sigma Mu.

**1 Introduction**

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Types of Material Failure

1.3 Design and Materials Selection

1.4 Technological Challenge

1.5 Economic Importance of Fracture

1.6 Summary

References

Problems and Questions

**2 Structure, Defects, and Deformation in Materials**

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Bonding in Solids

2.3 Structure in Crystalline Materials

2.4 Defects in Materials

2.5 Elastic Deformation and Theoretical Strength

2.6 Inelastic Deformation

2.7 Summary

References

Problems and Questions

**3 Mechanical Testing: Tension Test and Stress–Strain Mechanisms**

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Introduction to Tension Test

3.3 Engineering Stress–Strain Properties

3.4 Materials Science Description of Tensile Behavior

3.5 Trends in Tensile Behavior

3.6 True Stress–Strain Interpretation of Tension Test

3.7 Materials Selection for Engineering Components

3.8 Summary

References

Problems and Questions

**4 Mechanical Testing: Additional Basic Tests**

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Compression Test

4.3 Hardness Tests

4.4 Notch-Impact Tests

4.5 Bending and Torsion Tests

4.6 Summary

References

Problems and Questions

**5 Stress–Strain Relationships and Behavior**

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Models for Deformation Behavior

5.3 Elastic Deformation

5.4 Anisotropic Materials

5.5 Summary

References

Problems and Questions

**6 Review of Complex and Principal States of Stress and Strain**

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Plane Stress

6.3 Principal Stresses and the Maximum Shear Stress

6.4 Three-Dimensional States of Stress

6.5 Stresses on the Octahedral Planes

6.6 Complex States of Strain

6.7 Summary

References

Problems and Questions

**7 Yielding and Fracture under Combined Stresses**

7.1 Introduction

7.2 General Form of Failure Criteria

7.3 Maximum Normal Stress Fracture Criterion

7.4 Maximum Shear Stress Yield Criterion

7.5 Octahedral Shear Stress Yield Criterion

7.6 Discussion of the Basic Failure Criteria

7.7 Coulomb–Mohr Fracture Criterion

7.8 Modified Mohr Fracture Criterion

7.9 Additional Comments on Failure Criteria

7.10 Summary

References

Problems and Questions

**8 Fracture of Cracked** **Members**

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Preliminary Discussion

8.3 Mathematical Concepts

8.4 Application of K to Design and Analysis

8.5 Additional Topics on Application of K

8.6 Fracture Toughness Values and Trends

8.7 Plastic Zone Size, and Plasticity Limitations on LEFM

8.8 Discussion of Fracture Toughness Testing

8.9 Extensions of Fracture Mechanics Beyond Linear Elasticity

8.10 Summary

References

Problems and Questions

**9 Fatigue of Materials: Introduction and Stress-Based Approach**

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Definitions and Concepts

9.3 Sources of Cyclic Loading

9.4 Fatigue Testing

9.5 The Physical Nature of Fatigue Damage

9.6 Trends in S-N Curves

9.7 Mean Stresses

9.8 Multiaxial Stresses

9.9 Variable Amplitude Loading

9.10 Summary

References

Problems and Questions

**10 Stress-Based Approach to Fatigue: Notched Members**

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Notch Effects

10.3 Notch Sensitivity and Empirical Estimates of kf

10.4 Estimating Long-Life Fatigue Strengths (Fatigue Limits)

10.5 Notch Effects at Intermediate and Short Lives

10.6 Combined Effects of Notches and Mean Stress

10.7 Estimating S-N Curves

10.8 Use of Component S-N Data

10.9 Designing to Avoid Fatigue Failure

10.10 Discussion

10.11 Summary

References

Problems and Questions

**11 Fatigue Crack Growth**

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Preliminary Discussion

11.3 Fatigue Crack Growth Rate Testing

11.4 Effects of R = Smin/Smax on Fatigue Crack Growth

11.5 Trends in Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior

11.6 Life Estimates for Constant Amplitude Loading

11.7 Life Estimates for Variable Amplitude Loading

11.8 Design Considerations

11.9 Plasticity Aspects and Limitations of LEFM for Fatigue Crack Growth

11.10 Summary

References

Problems and Questions

**12 Environmentally Assisted Cracking**

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Definitions, Concepts, and Analysis

12.3 EAC in Metals: Basic Mechanisms

12.4 Hydrogen-Induced Embrittlement

12.5 Liquid Metal Embrittlement

12.6 EAC of Polymers

12.7 EAC of Glasses and Ceramics

12.8 Additional Comments and Preventative Measures

References

Problems and Questions

**13 Plastic Deformation Behavior and Models for Materials**

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Stress–Strain Curves

13.3 Three-Dimensional Stress–Strain Relationships

13.4 Unloading and Cyclic Loading Behavior from Rheological Models

13.5 Cyclic Stress–Strain Behavior of Real Materials

13.6 Summary

References

Problems and Questions

**14 Stress–Strain Analysis of Plastically Deforming Members**

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Plasticity in Bending

14.3 Residual Stresses and Strains for Bending

14.4 Plasticity of Circular Shafts in Torsion

14.5 Notched Members

14.6 Cyclic Loading

14.7 Summary

References

Problems and Questions

**15 Strain-Based Approach to Fatigue**

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Strain Versus Life Curves

15.3 Mean Stress Effects

15.4 Multiaxial Stress Effects

15.5 Life Estimates for Structural Components

15.6 Additional Discussion

15.7 Summary

References

Problems and Questions

**16 Time-Dependent Behavior: Creep and Damping**

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Creep Testing

16.3 Physical Mechanisms of Creep

16.4 Time–Temperature Parameters and Life Estimates

16.5 Creep Failure under Varying Stress

16.6 Stress–Strain–Time Relationships

16.7 Creep Deformation under Varying Stress

16.8 Creep Deformation under Multiaxial Stress

16.9 Component Stress–Strain Analysis

16.10 Energy Dissipation (Damping) in Materials

16.11 Summary

References

Problems and Questions

**Appendix A Review of Selected Topics from Mechanics of Materials**

A.1 Introduction

A.2 Basic Formulas for Stresses and Deflections

A.3 Properties of Areas

A.4 Shears, Moments, and Deflections in Beams

A.5 Stresses in Pressure Vessels, Tubes, and Discs

A.6 Elastic Stress Concentration Factors for Notches

A.7 Fully Plastic Yielding Loads

References

**Appendix B Statistical Variation in Materials Properties**

B.1 Introduction

B.2 Mean and Standard Deviation

B.3 Normal or Gaussian Distribution

B.4 Typical Variation in Materials Properties

B.5 One-Sided Tolerance Limits

B.6 Discussion

References

** Appendix C A Survey of Engineering Materials**

C.1 Introduction

C.2 Alloying and Processing of Metals

C.3 Irons and Steels

C.4 Nonferrous Metals

C.5 Polymers

C.6 Ceramics and Glasses

C.7 Composite Materials

C.8 Summary