# Munson, Young and Okiishi's Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

, by Gerhart, Andrew L.; Hochstein, John I.; Gerhart, Philip M.**Note:**Supplemental materials are not guaranteed with Rental or Used book purchases.

- ISBN: 9781119597308 | 1119597307
- Cover: Loose-leaf
- Copyright: 12/3/2020

*Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics, 9th Edition* offers comprehensive topical coverage, with varied examples and problems, application of the visual component of fluid mechanics, and a strong focus on effective learning. The authors have designed their presentation to enable the gradual development of reader confidence in problem solving. Each important concept is introduced in easy-to-understand terms before more complicated examples are discussed. The *9th Edition* includes new coverage of finite control volume analysis and compressible flow, as well as a selection of new problems. Continuing this important work's tradition of extensive real-world applications, each chapter includes The Wide World of Fluids case study boxes in each chapter. In addition, there are a wide variety of videos designed to enhance comprehension, support visualization skill building and engage students more deeply with the material and concepts.

**INTRODUCTION 1**

Learning Objectives 1

⦁ Some Characteristics of Fluids 3

⦁ Dimensions, Dimensional Homogeneity, and Units 4

⦁ Systems of Units 6

⦁ Analysis of Fluid Behavior 11

⦁ Measures of Fluid Mass and Weight 11

⦁ Density 11

⦁ Specific Weight 12

⦁ Specific Gravity 12

⦁ Ideal Gas Law 12

⦁ Viscosity 14

⦁ Compressibility of Fluids 20

⦁ Bulk Modulus 20

⦁ Compression and Expansion of Gases 21

⦁ Speed of Sound 22

⦁ Vapor Pressure 23

⦁ Surface Tension 24

⦁ A Brief Look Back in History 27

⦁ Chapter Summary and Study Guide 29

References 30

**⦁ FLUID STATICS 31**

Learning Objectives 31

⦁ Pressure at a Point 31

⦁ Basic Equation for Pressure Field 32

⦁ Pressure Variation in a Fluid at Rest 34

⦁ Incompressible Fluid 35

⦁ Compressible Fluid 37

⦁ Standard Atmosphere 39

⦁ Measurement of Pressure 41

⦁ Manometry 43

⦁ Piezometer Tube 43

⦁ U-Tube Manometer 44

⦁ Inclined-Tube Manometer 46

⦁ Mechanical and Electronic Pressure-Measuring Devices 47

⦁ Hydrostatic Force on a Plane Surface 50

⦁ Pressure Prism 56

⦁ Hydrostatic Force on a Curved Surface 59

⦁ Buoyancy, Flotation, and Stability 61

⦁ Archimedes’ Principle 61

⦁ Stability 64

⦁ Pressure Variation in a Fluid with Rigid-Body Motion 65

⦁ Linear Motion 66

⦁ Rigid-Body Rotation 68

⦁ Chapter Summary and Study Guide 70

References 71

**⦁ ELEMENTARY FLUID DYNAMICS—THE BERNOULLI EQUATION 73**

Learning Objectives 73

⦁ Newton’s Second Law 73

⦁ F ma along a Streamline 76

⦁ F ma Normal to a Streamline 80

⦁ Physical Interpretations and Alternate Forms of the Bernoulli Equation 82

⦁ Static, Stagnation, Dynamic, and Total Pressure 85

⦁ Examples of Use of the Bernoulli Equation 89

⦁ Free Jets 90

⦁ Confined Flows 92

⦁ Flowrate Measurement 98

⦁ The Energy Line and the Hydraulic Grade Line 103

⦁ Restrictions on Use of the Bernoulli Equation 106

⦁ Compressibility Effects 106

⦁ Unsteady Effects 107

⦁ Rotational Effects 109

⦁ Other Restrictions 110

⦁ Chapter Summary and Study Guide 110

References 111

**⦁ FLUID KINEMATICS 112**

Learning Objectives 112

⦁ The Velocity Field 112

⦁ Eulerian and Lagrangian Flow Descriptions 115

⦁ One-, Two-, and Three-Dimensional Flows 116

⦁ Steady and Unsteady Flows 117

⦁ Streamlines, Streaklines, and Pathlines 117

⦁ The Acceleration Field 121

⦁ Acceleration and the Material Derivative 121

⦁ Unsteady Effects 124

⦁ Convective Effects 124

⦁ Streamline Coordinates 127

⦁ Control Volume and System Representations 129

⦁ The Reynolds Transport Theorem 131

⦁ Derivation of the Reynolds Transport Theorem 133

⦁ Physical Interpretation 138

⦁ Relationship to Material Derivative 138

⦁ Steady Effects 139

⦁ Unsteady Effects 140

⦁ Moving Control Volumes 141

⦁ Selection of a Control Volume 142

⦁ Chapter Summary and Study Guide 143

References 144

**⦁ FINITE CONTROL VOLUME ANALYSIS 145**

Learning Objectives 145

⦁ Conservation of Mass—The Continuity Equation 146

⦁ Derivation of the Continuity Equation 146

⦁ Fixed, Nondeforming Control Volume 148

⦁ Moving, Nondeforming Control Volume 154

⦁ Deforming Control Volume 156

⦁ Newton’s Second Law—The Linear Momentum and Moment-of-Momentum Equations 159

⦁ Derivation of the Linear Momentum Equation 159

⦁ Application of the Linear Momentum Equation 160

⦁ Derivation of the Moment-of-Momentum Equation 174

⦁ Application of the Moment-of-Momentum Equation 175

⦁ First Law of Thermodynamics—The Energy Equation 182

5.3.1 Derivation of the Energy Equation 182

5.3.2 Application of the Energy Equation 185

5.3.3 The Mechanical Energy Equation and the Bernoulli Equation 189

5.3.4 Application of the Energy Equation to Nonuniform Flows 195

5.3.5 Combination of the Energy Equation and the Moment-of-Momentum Equation 198

5.4 Second Law of Thermodynamics—Irreversible Flow 199

5.4.1 Semi-infinitesimal Control Volume Statement of the Energy Equation 199

5.4.2 Semi-infinitesimal Control Volume Statement of the Second Law of Thermodynamics 199

5.4.3 Combination of the Equations of the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics 200

5.5 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 201

References 203

**⦁ DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS OF FLUID FLOW 204**

Learning Objectives 204

⦁ Fluid Element Kinematics 205

⦁ Velocity and Acceleration Fields Revisited 206

⦁ Linear Motion and Deformation 206

⦁ Angular Motion and Deformation 207

⦁ Conservation of Mass 210

⦁ Differential Form of Continuity Equation 210

⦁ Cylindrical Polar Coordinates 213

⦁ The Stream Function 213

⦁ The Linear Momentum Equation 216

⦁ Description of Forces Acting on the Differential Element 217

⦁ Equations of Motion 219

⦁ Inviscid Flow 220

⦁ Euler’s Equations of Motion 220

⦁ The Bernoulli Equation 220

⦁ Irrotational Flow 222

⦁ The Bernoulli Equation for Irrotational Flow 224

⦁ The Velocity Potential 224

⦁ Some Basic, Plane Potential Flows 227

⦁ Uniform Flow 228

⦁ Source and Sink 229

⦁ Vortex 231

⦁ Doublet 234

⦁ Superposition of Basic, Plane Potential Flows 236

⦁ Source in a Uniform Stream—Half-Body 236

⦁ Rankine Ovals 239

⦁ Flow Around a Circular Cylinder 241

⦁ Other Aspects of Potential Flow Analysis 246

⦁ Viscous Flow 247

⦁ Stress–Deformation Relationships 247

⦁ The Navier–Stokes Equations 248

⦁ Some Simple Solutions for Laminar, Viscous, Incompressible Flows 249

⦁ Steady, Laminar Flow Between Fixed Parallel Plates 250

⦁ Couette Flow 252

⦁ Steady, Laminar Flow in Circular Tubes 254

⦁ Steady, Axial, Laminar Flow in an Annulus 257

⦁ Other Aspects of Differential Analysis 259

⦁ Numerical Methods 259

⦁ Chapter Summary and Study Guide 260

References 261

**⦁ DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS, SIMILITUDE, AND MODELING 262**

Learning Objectives 262

⦁ The Need for Dimensional Analysis 263

⦁ Buckingham Pi Theorem 265

⦁ Determination of Pi Terms 266

⦁ Some Additional Comments about Dimensional Analysis 271

⦁ Selection of Variables 271

⦁ Determination of Reference Dimensions 273

⦁ Uniqueness of Pi Terms 274

⦁ Determination of Pi Terms by Inspection 275

⦁ Common Dimensionless Groups in Fluid Mechanics 277

⦁ Correlation of Experimental Data 282

⦁ Problems with One Pi Term 282

⦁ Problems with Two or More Pi Terms 283

⦁ Modeling and Similitude 286

⦁ Theory of Models 286

⦁ Model Scales 289

⦁ Practical Aspects of Using Models 290

⦁ Some Typical Model Studies 292

⦁ Flow Through Closed Conduits 292

⦁ Flow Around Immersed Bodies 294

⦁ Flow with a Free Surface 298

⦁ Similitude Based on Governing Differential Equations 301

⦁ Chapter Summary and Study Guide 304

References 305

**⦁ VISCOUS FLOW IN PIPES 307**

Learning Objectives 307

⦁ General Characteristics of Pipe Flow 308

⦁ Laminar or Turbulent Flow 309

⦁ Entrance Region and Fully Developed Flow 311

⦁ Pressure and Shear Stress 312

⦁ Fully Developed Laminar Flow 313

⦁ From F ma Applied Directly to a Fluid Element 314

⦁ From the Navier–Stokes Equations 318

⦁ From Dimensional Analysis 319

⦁ Energy Considerations 321

⦁ Fully Developed Turbulent Flow 323

⦁ Transition from Laminar to Turbulent Flow 323

⦁ Turbulent Shear Stress 325

⦁ Turbulent Velocity Profile 329

⦁ Turbulence Modeling 333

⦁ Chaos and Turbulence 333

⦁ Dimensional Analysis of Pipe Flow 333

⦁ Major Losses 334

⦁ Minor Losses 339

⦁ Noncircular Conduits 349

⦁ Pipe Flow Examples 352

⦁ Single Pipes 352

⦁ Multiple Pipe Systems 362

⦁ Pipe Flowrate Measurement 366

⦁ Pipe Flowrate Meters 366

⦁ Volume Flowmeters 371

⦁ Chapter Summary and Study Guide 372

References 373

**⦁ FLOW OVER IMMERSED BODIES 375**

Learning Objectives 375

⦁ General External Flow Characteristics 376

⦁ Lift and Drag Concepts 377

⦁ Characteristics of Flow Past an Object 380

⦁ Boundary Layer Characteristics 384

⦁ Boundary Layer Structure and Thickness on a Flat Plate 384

⦁ Prandtl/Blasius Boundary Layer Solution 388

⦁ Momentum Integral Boundary Layer Equation for a Flat Plate 392

⦁ Transition from Laminar to Turbulent Flow 397

⦁ Turbulent Boundary Layer Flow 399

⦁ Effects of Pressure Gradient 403

⦁ Momentum Integral Boundary Layer Equation with Nonzero Pressure Gradient 407

⦁ Drag 408

⦁ Friction Drag 409

⦁ Pressure Drag 410

⦁ Drag Coefficient Data and Examples 412

⦁ Lift 426

⦁ Surface Pressure Distribution 428

⦁ Circulation 434

⦁ Chapter Summary and Study Guide 438

References 439

**⦁ OPEN-CHANNEL FLOW 441**

Learning Objectives 441

⦁ General Characteristics of Open-Channel Flow 441

⦁ Surface Waves 443

⦁ Wave Speed 443

⦁ Froude Number Effects 446

⦁ Energy Considerations 448

⦁ Energy Balance 448

⦁ Specific Energy 449

⦁ Uniform Flow 452

⦁ Uniform Flow Approximations 452

⦁ The Chezy and Manning Equations 453

⦁ Uniform Flow Examples 456

⦁ Gradually Varied Flow 461

⦁ Rapidly Varied Flow 463

⦁ The Hydraulic Jump 464

⦁ Sharp-Crested Weirs 469

⦁ Broad-Crested Weirs 472

⦁ Underflow (Sluice) Gates 475

⦁ Chapter Summary and Study Guide 476

References 478

**⦁ COMPRESSIBLE FLOW 479**

Learning Objectives 479

⦁ Ideal Gas Thermodynamics 480

⦁ Stagnation Properties 485

⦁ Mach Number and Speed of Sound 487

⦁ Compressible Flow Regimes 492

⦁ Shock Waves 496

⦁ Normal Shock 497

⦁ Isentropic Flow 501

⦁ Steady Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas 502

⦁ Incompressible Flow and Bernoulli’s Equation 505

⦁ The Critical State 506

⦁ One-Dimensional Flow in a Variable Area Duct 507

⦁ General Considerations 507

⦁ Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas with Area Change 510

⦁ Operation of a Converging Nozzle 516

⦁ Operation of a Converging–Diverging Nozzle 518

⦁ Constant-Area Duct Flow with Friction 522

⦁ Preliminary Consideration: Comparison with Incompressible Duct Flow 522

⦁ The Fanno Line 523

⦁ Adiabatic Frictional Flow (Fanno Flow) of an Ideal Gas 527

⦁ Frictionless Flow in a Constant-Area Duct with Heating or Cooling 535

⦁ The Rayleigh Line 535

⦁ Frictionless Flow of an Ideal Gas with Heating or Cooling (Rayleigh Flow) 537

⦁ Rayleigh Lines, Fanno Lines, and Normal Shocks 541

⦁ Analogy Between Compressible and Open-Channel Flows 542

⦁ Two-Dimensional Supersonic Flow 543

⦁ Chapter Summary and Study Guide 545

References 548

**⦁ TURBOMACHINES 549**

Learning Objectives 549

⦁ Introduction 550

⦁ Basic Energy Considerations 551

⦁ Angular Momentum Considerations 555

⦁ The Centrifugal Pump 557

⦁ Theoretical Considerations 558

⦁ Pump Performance Characteristics 562

⦁ Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) 564

⦁ System Characteristics, Pump-System Matching, and Pump Selection 566

⦁ Dimensionless Parameters and Similarity Laws 570

⦁ Special Pump Scaling Laws 572

⦁ Specific Speed 573

⦁ Suction Specific Speed 574

⦁ Axial-Flow and Mixed-Flow Pumps 575

⦁ Fans 577

⦁ Turbines 578

⦁ Impulse Turbines 579

⦁ Reaction Turbines 586

⦁ Compressible Flow Turbomachines 589

⦁ Compressors 589

⦁ Compressible Flow Turbines 593

⦁ Chapter Summary and Study Guide 595

References 596

A Computational Fluid Dynamics 598

B Physical Properties of Fluids 617

C Properties of the U.S. Standard Atmosphere 622

D Compressible Flow Functions for an Ideal Gas 624

E Comprehensive Table of Conversion Factors 632

Index I-1

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