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- ISBN: 9780357676189 | 0357676181
- Cover: Hardcover
- Copyright: 1/1/2022
1. INTRODUCTION. Case Study: Transformation of the Grid: The Impact of Distributed Energy Resources on Bulk Power Systems. History of Electric Power Systems. Present and Future Trends. Electric Utility Industry Structure. Computers in Power System Engineering. PowerWorld Simulator. 2. FUNDAMENTALS. Case Study: Investing in the Future: How Small Utilities are Finding Success with Advanced Distribution Management Systems. Phasors. Instantaneous Power in Single-Phase AC Circuits. Complex Power. Network Equations. Balanced Three-Phase Circuits. Power in Balanced Three-Phase Circuits. Advantages of Balanced Three-Phase vs. Single-Phase Systems. Energy Conversion. 3. POWER TRANSFORMERS. Case Study: Transformer Innovation in a Changing Energy Landscape The Ideal Transformer. Equivalent Circuits for Practical Transformers. The Per-Unit System. Three-Phase Transformer Connections and Phase Shift. Per-Unit Equivalent Circuits of Balanced Three-Phase Two-Winding Transformers. Three-Winding Transformers. Autotransformers. Transformers with Off-Nominal Turns Ratios. 4. TRANSMISSION-LINE PARAMETERS. Case Study: Renewables, Resiliency Drive Transmission Upgrades. Case Study: Greenlink Nevada to Drive Job Creation, Economic Recovery from Covid-19 . Transmission Line Design Considerations. Resistance. Conductance. Inductance: Solid Cylindrical Conductor. Inductance: Single-Phase Two-Wire Line and Three-Phase Three-Wire Line with Equal Phase Spacing. Inductance: Composite Conductors, Unequal Phase Spacing, Bundled Conductors. Series Impedances: Three-Phase Line with Neutral Conductors and Earth Return. Electric Field and Voltage: Solid Cylindrical Conductor. Capacitance: Single-Phase Two-Wire Line and Three-Phase Three-Wire Line with Equal Phase Spacing. Capacitance: Stranded Conductors, Unequal Phase Spacing, Bundled Conductors. Shunt Admittances: Lines with Neutral Conductors and Earth Return. Electric Field Strength at Conductor Surfaces and at Ground Level. Parallel Circuit Three-Phase Lines. 5. TRANSMISSION LINES: STEADY-STATE OPERATION. Case Study: Opportunities for Embedded High Voltage Direct Current. Medium and Short Line Approximations. Transmission-Line Differential Equations. Equivalent p Circuit. Lossless Lines. Maximum Power Flow. Line Loadability. Reactive Compensation Techniques. 6. POWER FLOWS. Case Study: Xcel Energy Strengthens the Grid with Advanced SVCs. Direct Solutions to Linear Algebraic Equations: Gauss Elimination. Iterative Solutions to Linear Algebraic Equations: Jacobi and Gauss-Seidel. Iterative Solutions to Nonlinear Algebraic Equations: Newton-Raphson. The Power Flow Problem. Power Flow Solution by Gauss-Seidel. Power Flow Solution by Newton-Raphson. Control of Power Flow. Sparsity Techniques. Fast Decoupled Power Flow. The "DC" Power Flow. 7. ECONOMIC DISPATCH AND OPTIMAL POWER FLOW. Case Study: Electricity Markets in the United States. Economic Dispatch. Optimal Power Flow. Design Projects. 8. SYMMETRICAL FAULTS. Case Study: Pumped Storage Hydro: Then and Now. Series R-L Circuit Transients. Three-Phase Short Circuit - Unloaded Synchronous Machine. Power System Three-Phase Short Circuits. Bus Impedance Matrix. Circuit Breaker and Fuse Selection. Design Project. 9. SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS. Case Study: The Ups and Downs of Gravity Energy Storage. Definition of Symmetrical Components. Sequence Networks of Impedance Loads. Sequence Networks of Series Impedances. Sequence Networks of Three-Phase Lines. Sequence Networks of Rotating Machines. Per-Unit Sequence Models of Three-Phase Two-Winding Transformers. Per-Unit Sequence Models of Three-Phase Three-Winding Transformers. Power in Sequence Networks. 10. UNSYMMETRICAL FAULTS. Case Study: ABB Commissions Switchgear Installation with Eco-Efficient Gas. Case Study: Transforming the Transmission Industry: The Rapid Adoption of Green Gas for Grid (g3) signals a global change in environmental responsibility. Case Study: PG&E to use SF6-Free Products from Siemens. System Representation. Single Line-to-Ground Fault. Line-to-Line Fault. Double Line-to-Ground Fault. Sequence Bus Impedance Matrices. Design Projects. 11. SYSTEM PROTECTION. Case Study: On Good Behavior: Inverter-Grid Protections for Integrating Distributed Photovoltaics. Instrument Transformers. Overcurrent Relays. Radial System Protection. Reclosers, Fuses and Sectionalizers. Directional Relays. Protection of Two-Source System with Directional Relays. Zones of Protection. Line Protection with Impedance (Distance) Relays. Differential Relays. Bus Protection with Differential Relays. Transformer Protection with Differential Relays. Pilot Relaying. Numeric Relaying. 12. TRANSIENT STABILITY. Case Study: The Impact of Renewables on Operational Security The Swing Equation. Simplified Synchronous Machine Model and System Equivalents. The Equal-Area Criterion. Numerical Integration of the Swing Equation. Multimachine Stability. A Two-Axis Synchronous Machine Model. Wind Turbine Machine Models. Design Methods for Improving Transient Stability. 13. POWER SYSTEM CONTROLS. Case Study: The Software-Defined Power Grid. Generator-Voltage Control. Turbine-Governor Control. Load-Frequency Control. 14. TRANSMISSION LINES: TRANSIENT OPERATION. Case Study: . Case Study: VariSTAR Type AZE Station-Class Surge Arresters for Systems through 345 kV IEEE Certified. Traveling Waves on Single-Phase Lossless Lines. Boundary Conditions for Single-Phase Lossless Lines. Bewley Lattice Diagram. Discrete-Time Models of Single-Phase Lossless Lines and Lumped RLC Elements. Lossy Lines. Multiconductor Lines. Power System Overvoltages. Insulation Coordination. 15. POWER DISTRIBUTION. Case Study: High-Frequency Power Electronics at the Grid Edge. Introduction to Distribution. Primary Distribution. Secondary Distribution. Transformers in Distribution Systems. Shunt Capacitors in Distribution Systems. Distribution Software. Distribution Reliability. Distribution Automation. Smart Grid. Appendix. Index.