Practical Argument A Text and Anthology, by Kirszner, Laurie G.; Mandell, Stephen R.
- ISBN: 9781319194451 | 1319194451
- Cover: Paperback
- Copyright: 10/7/2019
More than ever, successful argumentation is a major part of academic success—and has plenty of real-world application. But students don’t benefit when they are bogged down with technical jargon and abstraction. That’s where Practical Argument comes in.
Bestselling authors Laurie Kirszner and Stephen Mandell make argumentative writing accessible with a scaffolded, step-by-step approach to convey what students need to know about argument, in understandable language. The Fourth Edition includes an even more contemporary and diverse array of readings, as well as new coverage of the kinds of visual arguments students are likely to encounter in their everyday lives.
Part 1—Understanding Argument
An Introduction to Argument
Why Instructors Assign Argument [box]
What Kinds of Statements Are Not Debatable? [box]
Arguments in Real Life
Winning and Losing Arguments
The Rhetorical Situation
Considering the Writer
Considering the Purpose
Considering the Audience
Considering the Question
Considering the Context
Logos, Pathos, and Ethos
The Appeal to Reason (logos)
Logos in Action
The Appeal to the Emotions (pathos)
Pathos in Action
The Appeal to Authority (ethos)
Ethos in Action
The Rhetorical Triangle
1—The Four Pillars of Argument
AT ISSUE: Is a College Education Worth the Money?
The Elements of Argument
Checklist: Does Your Argument Stand Up?
Nia Tuckson, Why Foreign-Language Study Should Be Required [student essay]
*Andy Kessler, Learn a Language, But Not a Human One
READING AND WRITING ABOUT THE ISSUE: Is a College Education Worth the Money?
*Derek Tharp, Is College Worth It? The Answer Isn’t as Simple as You Think
Marty Nemko, We Send Too Many Students to College
Jennie Le, What Does It Mean to Be a College Grad?
*Bryan Caplan, What’s College Good For?
Mary C. Daly and Leila Bengali, Is It Still Worth Going to College?
*University of the People, Does College Still Matter in 2018?
Part 2—Reading and Responding to Arguments
2—Thinking and Reading Critically
AT ISSUE: Does Recycling Really Accomplish Anything?
Using Critical-Thinking Skills [box]
Guidelines for Reading Critically [box]
Becoming an Active Reader
Comprehension Clues [box]
*John Tierney, The Reign of Recycling
Suggestions for Highlighting [box]
Checklist: Questions for Annotating
*Los Angeles Times, It’s Time to Phase Out All Single-Use Plastic
*Bob Holmes, Waste Not…
*Jenny Luna, We Are So Forked
Writing a Critical Response
Checklist: Questions for Critical Reading
*Neena Thomason, Response to "It’s Time To Phase Out All Single-Use Plastic" [student response]
Template for Writing a Critical Response
3—Reading and Responding to Visual Arguments
AT ISSUE: Does Recycling Really Accomplish Anything? [continued]
Thinking Critically about Visual Arguments
Visuals versus Visual Arguments [box]
Using Active Reading Strategies with Visual Arguments
Comprehension Clues [box]
Appeals: Logos, Pathos, and Ethos [box]
National Geographic Cover [visual]
Recycling Bar Graph [graphs]
Bird Trapped in Plastic [photo]
Recycling cartoon [cartoon]
Waste Pie Chart [chart]
Straws Suck! [infographic]
What Goes in the Ocean Goes in You [advertisement]
Last Earth Day [advertisement]
Responding Critically to Visual Arguments
Checklist: Questions for Responding to Visual Arguments
What Goes in the Ocean Goes in You [student response]
Template for Responding to Visual Arguments
4—Writing a Rhetorical Analysis
AT ISSUE: Is It Ethical to Buy Counterfeit Designer Merchandise?
What Is a Rhetorical Analysis?
Overview: "Letter from Birmingham Jail" by Martin Luther King Jr. [box]
Considering the Rhetorical Situation
Analyzing the Rhetorical Situation [box]
Analyzing the Writer [box]
The Writer’s Purpose
Analyzing the Writer’s Purpose [box]
The Writer’s Audience
Analyzing the Writer’s Audience [box]
Analyzing the Question [box]
Analyzing the Context [box]
Considering the Means of Persuasion: Logos, Pathos, Ethos
The Appeal to Reason (logos)
The Appeal to the Emotions (pathos)
The Appeal to Authority (ethos)
Considering the Writer’s Rhetorical Strategies
Assessing the Argument
Checklist: Preparing to Write a Rhetorical Analysis
Sample Rhetorical Analysis
Dana Thomas, Terror's Purse Strings
Deniz Bilgutay, A Powerful Call to Action [student essay]
Rajeev Ravisankar, Sweatshop Oppression
Template for Writing a Rhetorical Analysis
*Jerome Sieger, Sweatshops Are Good
5—Understanding Logic and Recognizing Logical Fallacies
AT ISSUE: How Free Should Free Speech Be?
What Is Deductive Reasoning?
Constructing Sound Syllogisms
Syllogism with an Illogical Middle Term
Syllogism with a Key Term Whose Meaning Shifts
Syllogisms with Negative Premise
Bumper-Sticker Thinking [box]
Writing Deductive Arguments
Crystal Sanchez, College Should Be for Everyone [student essay]
What Is Inductive Reasoning?
Reaching Inductive Conclusions [box]
Constructing Strong Inductive Arguments
Generalization Too Broad
Exceptions to the Rule
Writing Inductive Arguments
William Saletan, Please Do Not Feed the Humans
Recognizing Logical Fallacies
Begging the Question
Ad Hominem Fallacy (Personal Attack)
Creating a Straw Man
Hasty or Sweeping Generalization (Jumping to a Conclusion)
Either/Or Fallacy (False Dilemma)
You Also (Tu Quoque)
Appeal to Doubtful Authority
Misuse of Statistics
Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc (After This, Therefore Because of This)
Non Sequitur (It Does Not Follow)
Patrick J. Buchanan, Immigration Time-Out
READING AND WRITING ABOUT THE ISSUE: How Free Should Free Speech Be?
*Thane Rosenbaum, Should Neo-Nazis Be Allowed Free Speech?
*Sol Stern, The Unfree Speech Movement
*American Association of University Professors, On Freedom of Expression and Campus Speech Codes
*Wendy Kaminer, Progressive Ideas Have Killed Free Speech on Campus
*Judith Shulevitz, In College and Hiding from Scary Ideas
*Eric Posner, Universities Are Right to Crack Down on Speech and Behavior
Template for Writing a Deductive Argument
Template for Writing an Inductive Argument
6—Rogerian Argument, Toulmin Logic, and Oral Arguments
AT ISSUE: Why Are So Few Women in STEM Fields?
Understanding Rogerian Argument
Structuring Rogerian Arguments
Writing Rogerian Arguments
Zoya Kahn, Why Cell Phones Do Not Belong in the Classroom [student essay]
Understanding Toulmin Logic
Constructing Toulmin Arguments
Writing Toulmin Arguments
Jen Davis, Competitive Cheerleaders Are Athletes [student essay]
Understanding Oral Arguments
Planning an Oral Argument
Checklist: Designing and Displaying Visuals
Delivering Oral Arguments
Dealing with Nervousness [box]
Composing an Oral Argument
Chantee Steele, An Argument in Support of the "Gap Year" [student speech]
READING AND WRITING ABOUT THE ISSUE: Why Are So Few Women in STEM Fields?
**Olivia Nicholas, **What Are You Going to Do with That Major?*
**Olga Khazan, **The More Gender Equality, the Fewer Women in STEM*
*Stuart Reges, Why Women Don’t Code
*Rosalind C. Barnett and Caryl Rivers, The Science Doesn’t Support the Google Memo
*Barbara Oakley, Why Do Women Shun STEM? It’s Complicated
Template for Writing a Rogerian Argument
Template for Writing a Toulmin Argument
Part 3—Writing an Argumentative Essay
7—Planning, Drafting, and Revising an Argumentative Essay
AT ISSUE: Should College Campuses Go Green?
Choosing a Topic
Topics to Avoid [box]
Thinking about Your Topic
Drafting a Thesis Statement
Understanding Your Purpose and Audience
Evaluating the Evidence in Your Sources
Detecting Bias in Your Sources
Using Analogies as Evidence [box]
Refuting Opposing Arguments
Strategies for Refuting Opposing Arguments
Revising Your Thesis Statement
Structuring Your Essay
Supplying Background Information [box]
Using Induction and Deduction
Identifying a Strategy for Your Argument
Constructing a Formal Outline
Maintaining Your Credibility [box]
Drafting Your Essay
Suggested Transitions for Argument [box]
GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT: Using Parallelism
Revising Your Essay
Checklist: Questions about Your Essay’s Purpose and Audience
Checklist: Questions about Your Essay’s Structure and Style
Checklist: Questions about Your Essay’s Supporting Evidence
Using Outlines and Templates
Guidelines for Peer Review
Polishing Your Essay
Editing and Proofreading
GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT: Contractions vs. Possessive Pronouns
Choosing a Title
Shawn Holton, Going Green [student essay]
Part 4—Using Sources to Support Your Argument
8—Finding and Evaluating Sources
AT ISSUE: Is Technology a Serious Threat to Our Privacy?
Finding Information in the Library
Finding Information on the Internet
*Zeynep Tufekci, The Privacy Debacle
*David N. Cicilline and Terrell McSweeny, Competition is at the Heart of Facebook’s Privacy Problem
*Daniel Lyons, Facebook: Privacy Problems and PR Nightmare
Using a Site’s URL to Assess Its Objectivity [box]
Avoiding Confirmation Bias [box]
*The Chronicle of Higher Education, Home Page [website]
*Glamour Magazine, Home Page [website]
*The Chronicle of Higher Education, About The Chronicle [website]
*Glamour Magazine, About Glamour [website]
*Bart Lazar, Why We Need a Privacy Label on the Internet
*Douglas Rushkoff, You Are Not Facebook’s Customer
*Igor Kuksov, All Ears: The Dangers of Voice Assistants
Sam Laird, Should Athletes Have Social Media Privacy? One Bill Says Yes
9—Summarizing, Paraphrasing, Quoting, and Synthesizing Sources
AT ISSUE: Is Technology a Serious Threat to Our Privacy? (continued)
When to Summarize [box]
Summarizing Sources [box]
When to Paraphrase [box]
Paraphrasing Sources [box]
When to Quote [box]
Quoting Sources [box]
Shelley Fralic, Don’t Fall for the Myths about Online Privacy
Working Source Material into Your Argument
Using Identifying Tags
Template for Using Identifying Tags [box]
Working Quotations into Your Sentences
Distorting Quotations [box]
10—Documenting Sources: MLA
Using Parenthetical References
Preparing the Works-Cited List
MLA Paper Guidelines [box]
Erin Blaine, Should Data Posted on Social Networking Sites Be "Fair Game" for Employers? [Model MLA Paper]
11—Using Sources Responsibly
AT ISSUE: Where Should We Draw the Line with Plagiarism?
Two Definitions of Plagiarism [box]
Avoiding Unintentional Plagiarism
Internet Sources and Plagiarism [box]
Intentional Plagiarism [box]
Knowing What to Document
Loos Diallo, Plagiarism Policy [image]
*Erika Ramirez, When Beyonce’s Inspiration Turns Into Imitation
Revising to Eliminate Plagiarism
READING AND WRITING ABOUT THE ISSUE: Where Should We Draw the Line with Plagiarism?
Trip Gabriel, Plagiarism Lines Blur for Students in Digital Age
*Jennifer Mott-Smith, Bad Idea about Writing: Plagiarism Deserves to be Punished
Richard A. Posner, The Truth about Plagiarism
*Helen Rubinstein, When Plagiarism is a Plea for Help
Dan Ariely, Essay Mills: A Coarse Lesson in Cheating
Term Papers for Sale Advertisement [Web page]
Template for Writing an Argument about Plagiarism
Writing Assignments: Using Sources Responsibly
Part 5— Strategies for Argument
AT ISSUE: How Do We Distinguish Between Real News and Misinformation?
What Is a Definition Argument?
Dictionary Definitions (Formal Definitions)
Structuring a Definition Argument
Adam Kennedy, Why I Am a Nontraditional Student [student essay]
GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT: Avoiding "Is Where" and "Is When"
*Ej Garr, Athlete vs. Role Model
Firefighters at Ground Zero [photograph]; The Tuskegee Airmen [photograph]
READING AND WRITING ABOUT THE ISSUE: How Do We Distinguish Between Real News and Misinformation?
*Joanna Burkhardt, History of Fake News
*Jimmy Wales, What Can We Do to Combat Fake News?
*Adrian Chen, The Fake News Fallacy
*Katie Langin, Fake News Spreads Faster than True News
*Lee Leetaru, How Data and Information Literacy Could End Fake News
Template for Writing a Definition Argument
Writing Assignments: Definition Arguments
AT ISSUE: Does Our Reliance on Social Media Bring Us Together or Drive Us Apart?
What Is a Cause-and-Effect Argument?
Bumper Stickers [photograph]
Understanding Cause-and-Effect Relationships
Main and Contributory Causes
Immediate and Remote Causes
Key Words for Cause-and-Effect Arguments [box]
Post Hoc Reasoning
Structuring a Cause-and-Effect Argument
Kristina Mialki, Texting: A Boon, Not a Threat, to Language [student essay]
GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT: Avoiding "The reason is because"
Peggy Orenstein, Should the World of Toys Be Gender-Free?
READING AND WRITING ABOUT THE ISSUE: Does Our Reliance on Social Media Bring Us Together or Drive Us Apart?
*Laura Bogart, I Don’t Own a Smartphone – and I Don’t Want One
*Dimitiry Kozlov, Social Media: Bringing People Together, Virtually and Physically
*Robert Weiss, Closer Together or Further Apart? Digital Devices and the New Generation Gap
*David Ludden, Does Using Social Media Make You Lonely?
*Wendy Leung, I Quit Facebook and I Miss It
*Sherry Turkle, The Flight from Conversation
Template for Writing a Cause-and-Effect Argument
Writing Assignments: Cause-and-Effect Arguments
AT ISSUE: Do the Benefits of Fossil Fuels Outweigh the Environmental Risks?
What Is an Evaluation Argument?
Making Evaluations [box]
Identifying Bias [box]
Criteria for Evaluation
Structuring an Evaluation Argument
Kevin Murphy, Evaluation of a Website: RateMyProfessors.com [student essay]
GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT: Comparatives and Superlatives
*Eric Klinenberg, To Restore Civil Society, Start with the Library
READING AND WRITING ABOUT THE ISSUE: Do the Benefits of Fracking Outweigh the Environmental Risks?
*Joseph Bast and Peter Ferrara The Social Benefits of Fossil Fuels Far Outweigh the Costs
*Juan Ramos, Fossil Fuels Pros and Cons
*Bernard McNamee, This Earth Day, Let’s Accept the Critical Role That Fossil Fuels Play in Energy Needs
Sean Lennon, Destroying Precious Land for Gas
*Bruno Comby, The Benefits of Nuclear Energy
*Barbara Hurd, Fracking: A Fable
Template for Writing an Evaluation Argument
Writing Assignments: Evaluation Arguments
AT ISSUE: How Far Should Schools Go to Keep Students Safe?
What is an Ethical Argument?
Stating an Ethical Principle
Ethics versus Law
Understanding Ethical Dilemmas
Treadlighly.org, Ride Hard, Tread Lightly [advertisement]
*PETA, Adopt, Don’t Buy [advertisement]
Linda Pastan, Ethics [poem]
Structuring an Ethical Argument
Chris Muñoz, Are Colleges Doing Enough for Nontraditional Students? [student essay]
GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT: Subordination and Coordination
*Shubhankar Chokra, The Ethical Case for Eating Animals
READING AND WRITING ABOUT THE ISSUE: How Far Should Schools Go to Keep Students Safe?
*Evie Blad, Do Schools’ "Active Shooter" Drills Prepare or Frighten?
Timothy Wheeler There’s a Reason They Choose Schools
*Sasha Arbramsky, The Fear Industry Goes Back to Work
*Michael Goldberg, I’m a School Psychologist—and I Think Teachers Should Be Armed
*Vann Newkirk, Arming Educators Violates the Spirit of the Second Amendment
Isothermal Community College, Warning Signs: How You Can Help Prevent Campus Violence
Template for Writing an Ethical Argument
Writing Assignments: Ethical Arguments
AT ISSUE: Should the Government Do More to Relieve the Student Loan Burden?
What Is a Proposal Argument?
PETA, Let Vegetarianism Grow on You [advertisement]
Problem Solving Strategies [box]
Stating the Problem
Proposing a Solution
Demonstrating That Your Solution Will Work
Sunshineweek.org, Let the Sunshine In [advertisement]
Refuting Opposing Arguments
Nyc.gov, It’s Your City. It’s Your Earth. [advertisement]
Bernie Sanders, Medicare for All Is Good for Business
Structuring a Proposal Argument
Melissa Burrell, Colleges Need Honor Codes [student essay]
GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT: Will versus Would
*Michelle Wu, The Road to Fear-Free Driving in Boston
READING AND WRITING ABOUT THE ISSUE: Should the Government Do More to Relieve the Student-Loan Burden?
*Rana Foroohar, The US College Debt Bubble Is Becoming Dangerous
Richard Vedder, Forgive Student Loans?
*Ben Miller, Student Debt: It’s Worse Than We Imagined
Sam Adolphsen, Don’t Blame the Government
Astra Taylor, A Strike against Student Debt
Template for Writing a Proposal Argument
Writing Assignments: Proposal Arguments
Part 5 Review: Combining Argumentative Strategies
*Robert M. Franklin, RFK’s Still a Leadership Role Model for Youth
Kevin Carey, Fulfill George Washington’s Last Wish — a National University
Part 6—Debates, Casebooks, and Classic Arguments
17— Should We Embrace Self-Driving Cars?
*Don Aucoin, Why We Have the Ethics of Self-Driving Cars All Wrong
*Olivia Goldhill, Should Driverless Cars Kill Their Own Passengers to Save a Pedestrian?
18—Should College Athletes Be Paid?
*Randy Bertolas, Jayme Krejci, and Alex Stanley Are Colleges and Universities Obligated to Provide Student Athletes with Additional Compensation? (Point)
* Randy Bertolas, Jayme Krejci, and Alex Stanley Are Colleges and Universities Obligated to Provide Student Athletes with Additional Compensation? (Counterpoint)
19—Under What Circumstances Do Bystanders Have an Ethical Obligation to Intervene?
Lenore Skenazy, How Kitty Genovese Destroyed Childhood
Joe Nocera, It’s Hard to Be a Hero
20—Should the United States Establish a Universal Basic Income?
*Christian Bot, The Conservative Case for Universal Basic Income
*Geroge Zarkadakas, The Case Against Universal Basic Income
21—Should Every American Go to College?
Eric Hoover, College’s Value Goes Deeper Than the Degree
*Andrew Perry, Stop Saying College Isn’t for Everyone
*G. Vance, The College Trap: Our Higher Education System Hurts the Poor
Charles Murray, What's Wrong with Vocational School?
22—How Should We Solve the Opioid Problem?
*Ericka Anderson, The Opioid Epidemic Is a Cultural Problem, It Requires Cultural Solutions
*Stanton Peele, The Solution to the Opioid Crisis
*Peter Moore, The Other Opioid Crisis
*Sally Satel, The Myth of What’s Driving the Opioid Crisis
23—Should the United States Have Open Borders?
*Richard Lamm, The Liberal Case for Reducing Immigration
*Nick Srineck, $100 Trillion Case for Open Borders
*John Lee, Secure the U.S.-Mexico Border: Open It
*Adam Ozemik, Why I Don’t Support Open Borders
24—Does It Pay to Study the Humanities?
Christina H. Paxson, The Economic Case for Saving the Humanities
Anthony P. Carnevale and Michelle Melton, Major Differences: Why Undergraduate Majors Matter
Kim Brooks, Is It Time to Kill the Liberal Arts Degree?
Thomas Frank, Course Corrections
Plato, The Allegory of the Cave
Andrew Marvell, To His Coy Mistress
Jonathan Swift, A Modest Proposal
Thomas Jefferson, The Declaration of Independence
Abraham Lincoln, The Gettysburg Address
Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions
George Orwell, Politics and the English Language
Rachel Carson, The Obligation to Endure
Betty Friedan, The Importance of Work
James Baldwin, If Black English Isn’t a Language, Then Tell Me, What Is?
Appendix A—Writing Literary Arguments
What Is a Literary Argument?
Stating an Argumentative Thesis
Writing a Literary Argument
Megan McGovern, Confessions of a Misunderstood Poem: An Analysis of "The Road Not Taken" [student essay]
Loren Martinez, Not Just a "Girl"[student essay]
Appendix B—Documenting Sources: APA
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